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ACI Fabric Infrastructure
7. ACI Topology & hardware 04
Okay, great. We are into part two of the hardware. We have just discussed Epic controller hardware. So, this type of UCS Blitz server we have in that Following that, we have Leaf and Spine hardware. Now for Leaf and Spine, we are using Nexus 9 and the Kor 9000 series, and that will be inside ACI mode. Remember, we have two modes: NXOS mode and then ACI mode. Now both modes are exclusive. Either you can use NXOS or you can use ACI mode. Now again, you will see that. Again we have two options actually. Either we can use the chassis model, so you can see that you have the chassis architecture, or maybe you have a fixed line card. You already know that the chassis means you can replace the line card inside, that it has a sock supervisor engine, redundant power supply, and fan, and that it has its own building structure and family. Correct? And then, if you are looking for cost and other aspects like space cooling, etc., you can go for the low end. So for example, the 9300 line card type of Nexus is also available. So we have both the options because Cisco was very popular and is still very popular with the chassis-based model. Either it's a catalyst switch or a Nexus switch. Now, as per the customer requirement and the new virtualization requirement, Cisco is giving options related to line card-based models as well. And again, you have pros and cons with both. So if you have a big deployment, obviously you will go for a larger number of ports, a higher port density, much higher throughput, et cetera. And you can go ahead and select this 9500, because it is a large architecture. Let me quickly show you how you can see this inside the animation. First of all, you can check the product family. So here you can see that you have a 9500 modulo switch and then a 9300 fixed switch. Again, you can go and check the data sheet because if you go and verify the data sheet, you will get much more detail behind the scenes. Things like what type of AC, how much support, how much throughput what is the back plane fan, redundancy, et at is the back pl So please go and refer to these data sheets to learn more about the Nexus hardware. And what I'm going to show you next is that you can go to the animation as well. You can see the URL even now. You can go and do a simple Google search for "ACI," Nexus Hardware Animation," and you will get these links once you're here. Let me expand on this. You can easily read all these things, and a good thing about this is that these are the clickable items. So you can go ahead and remove some spin off, and you'll see this animation. This is actually good if you don't have the physical hardware in front of you. You can go click on the top, and you can see the front view. You can go and check any of the line cards, and again you can see that since this is the modular chassis, it has different types of line cards. Let me show you here that you have a 64-port line card. That's the PX line card. So 9564 Stanford has 64 ports, then you have 64 ports TX, then you have 36 PQ. So if I go and click 36 PQ, the first line card will go inside that and then the next line card should come out and it will show you this. So this should be 36 PQ, and here you can see 123-45, 67, 89, 10, 11, 12. So 18 plus 18 you have total 36 port. And, once again, you can rotate these diagrams to examine the sync RAM CPU and the internal architecture, which is unimportant to network engineers. But in cases of hardware failure, if you have a certain type of error message, you can verify that if you know a little bit about the hardware as well. Now here, you can see that you have the fan tray as well. Let me quickly show you that the rest of it is as well. So you can go and check the fan trail system, controller, fabric module, et cetera. And you can see the placement of those as well. Okay, so like that, you can go and verify the hardware and the line card as well. Now, this Nexus 9200-series switch works or supports only Nxtos mode, which will not be used in ACI mode. The rest of the information in this slide is just a representation of the theory behind how this architecture, this modular chassis architecture, looks. So for example, the 9500 platform has a 16 linecard option, and it depends on what type of modular chassis architecture you have. Are you using four slots here? You can see you have four slots. Are you using eight slots? Here you can see eight slot and are you using 16 slots? Here you can see the big 16-slot Nexus chassis, correct? So likewise, you have the notes here, and again, if I go back to the slide, you can see that the overall throughput that you will get is going to be up to 400 kg. You can see how much throughput there is. So we've progressed from MVPs to gigabits to terabytes, and the day will come when the devices, hardware, and Lexus will all support much higher throughput. Now we know, and if you have worked on the modular charges, you'll find that somewhere you have the control plane that stern as a supervisor engine, and then you can put or insert the line card, line card, line card, et cetera, line card. You can think as a data plane, a supervisor, you can think of a control plane and in between this line card. How does the line card work? They are communicating with the supervisor engine. So that's the term we have: the eOBC (ethernet out-of-band channel). This is the communication medium between the line guard and the supervisor engine. Again, small notes relate to the power grid and the redundant power supply. Then all of these modules—all of the hardware, all of the modular chassis switches—are hot swappable; you can remove and replace anything. They have a fabric design. So actually, inside the design, you have cloth fabric. Remember the type of structure you will find inside the chip itself. So if you go and check the chip and the fabric module, they have some crossbar architecture, and they are actually very much supporting the cross fabric behind the scenes. Again, if you want to learn more about the hardware inside Cisco Live, there are great presentations about ACI hardware, and you can go and just search ACI hardware and you'll get good documents related to in-depth light on ACI hardware, plus you'll get some additional information about different types of line cuts and different types of product families related to ACI, plus the Nexus as well. So again, in the front and rear views you can see, and we have seen in the animation as well, you have the line card, you have the supervisor module, and you have the fan tray fabric module. Let's see if that's something that's giving the actual throughput to the hardware. That's a fab model, and then you have the system controller. After that, you'll find that we have 9300 switches and 9300 switches. If you go and check the first line, this is very important. So you have these 9500 switches, and then you have 9300 switches. This 9300 switch can be used as a leaf in a spine, correct? So this 9500 but it is used as a spine but it's 9300 and different hardware inside 9300 family can be used as a leaf and spine as well. So we should check the data sheet to see which particular version is a leaf in a spi. Now let's quickly move on and reach the bottom of the slide, where we are. So now you can see that you have a different type of line card as well. And inside this 9364, you can see the hardware that is supporting the spine switch. It is explicitly stated that this hardware (936-493-3236 and 16) can function as an ACI spine switch. And then if I go next again, you can go and check the rack space and all the other features and throughput. Next, if I can go ahead, you can see that we have 933-629-3180, which is very popular as a leaf switch, and 9332, which is also very popular with a leaf switch. so they are used as a leaf switch. So there is worship difference 936-4933 two C. These things you should write somewhere and you can compare it maybe in Excel you can check that okay, which hardware, how much interfaces because with the name Excel will come to know how many interfaces. So 9336 means 36 ports. You can count here, and one 80 doesn't mean 180 ports, but it is telling you that 24 becomes 46 and 40 like that. Okay, so again, these are the Leaf switch series and again you can see the supported throughput. I have marked that as a green how much racket space it will use, how many SFP port or key SFP plus port it will use. Again, we have two generations, one is Ex series, one is FX series and again, as per the throughput, as per the port density and your speed, we can utilize these inside our system. So you can go to this link and further study the hardware and architecture of this, whether it's a chassis, leaf, or switch line card type of ACI switch. One thing I want to mention here is that the Essexic is playing a very important role, and we have two different generations. Now we are inside the Cisco type of slide, and here you will find this is actually the summary of these two slides. If you go and read the slides carefully, what will happen with the evolution of a new type of Essex is that you will get higher bandwidth and greater port density at a lower price. You have large buffer size, you have large table size, means you can put more Mac address, IP address, et cetera. And then they have visibility and telemetry support. Now, if you come here you'll see that starting with the generation one you have NFE and Alemeans when you pack it will come, it has to reset circulate among the NFE and the Ale. Now we have the Leaf spine engine. You can say LSE where in the single circulation it will happen, and it's very much enhanced. That's the second generation, and inside 9300 you can go and use this second generation. All right, so if you want to know more, again I have given this link here in the bottom. So you can go and just check that what are different type of chip. We have this NSE and Ale network, forwarding engine, application Leaf engine, et cetera. You can go and check the name and a few of the features that are used, but again, you can see that the same thing has happened with two different essays that are collapsed inside one Essex. Obviously, the recirculation will not happen; the request will come to LSE Leaf's fine engine, and then it will be handed off for the next processing. that are used, So we have completed the hardware studies at this point of time. In the previous section, we have a study about the Epic, and then we have a study about the ACI Leaf and spine hardware. The next section I'm going to start is about the ACI object model, and for that I have four different videos. So go and complete those four videos related to the ACI object model.
8. ACI Object Model
Everything inside the ACI model is an object. And we are going to learn a lot about the object, the modeling, and the object reference point. We'll see them all one by one all those things.ACI logical model overview: how it is So if someone asks that, okay, what is the difference between the traditional network and the new network, like an SDN type of network? You'll find that in the new network we have something called a database. So all these new network Sdn type of network, they have the database controllers or the controllers can work as a database. In our case at ACI, we have the database management engine and everything we have in terms of objects. Now, what is the other new thing we have in the new type of network—a new interface to do the configuration for the object-oriented programming infrastructure? So now we have the API. Initially, we configured using CLI or Google. Even these options are already present in the new setup also. But we have the new option of this API where I can do everything that I can do via the CLI and the GUI. What type of models do we have? In the ACI, we have the logical model. So whenever a user logs in inside the Epic controller, that configuration is termed a "logical model." Then we have the resolve model. What is that? So when you want to push the configuration to the devices in between, it should get resolved, then it will go and programme the hardware. Because you are writing your programme in a high-level type of language, it should be converted into a low-level type of language that machines can understand. So that is the resolution model. And then we have the concrete model. It's suitable for the NX OS type of operating system. So let me show you the diagram. What does it mean? So here in the diagram, you can see that whenever I log into the device, I'm doing the configuration that will be the logical model. It will be resolved by the Epiccontroller before pushing to the hardware. This resolve model is converted to the concrete model once more before being pushed to the actual hardware. This is something like hardware programming. This is similar to the NX?OS command line interface. This is something that requires internal conversion from the gateway programming, or Epic programming, to the resolve model. Then it is sent to the hardware. Now, here you can see that I have an arrow directly going from the logical model to the concrete model. That means there are few commands in an ACI or AP controller that are natively supported by the hardware. So for example, if you want to shut down the port or not shut down the port, you want to change the speed and duplex, etc. like small things that you don't want to resolve. So already, on the Epic Controller, they are tweaking those commands as a concrete model. Command. As a result, the concrete model notifies Inxias about the hardware program. That's true already. I told you that everything inside the ACI is an object. And for that, we have management information. Three insured that is mixed. So objects are structured in a tree-based hierarchy. Everything is an object objectreferred as managed object. Every object has apparent with exception of root. Obviously root is root. Objects can be linked through relationships, and if you study more about the ACF fabric, you'll find that, okay, you are creating the tenant inside the tenant. You can define the application profile, the application endpoint group, and the endpoint. So now you can see that you have the hierarchy. So now this is referring one customer, and then everything is referring this customer. Even inside tenant, you can go and create bridge domains, and inside those, you can go and create subnets, say subnets one, two, three, et cetera. Now again subnets referring bridgedomain, referring the tenant. and then we have the VR. The bridge domain is referring to VR. You can see that you may have directrelationship, you may have indirect relationships also youmay have independent object who can refer eachother also like whatever, we have a studyin C language or C plus plus language. What are the relationships we can create between the objects? Either they are calling itselfor they are referring itself. Like that, all these things are possible because, by the end of the day, it is complete programming. So, for example, how is the DNS entry? Suppose if you have www.cisco.com, you have www, then you have Cisco, then you have www.cisco.com; it's like that hierarchy. The other example we can refer to is the SNMP in SNMP. Also, you have the string 13614, nine, etc. So 91416 three, everything is referring to and reaching towards the root. So like that, we have all the object relations, and it will start from the root and then go down. It can have multiple paths to reach the root as well. Let us discuss a little bit about the class. So classes classes are what they are. They are not the placeholders, but they are the containers. You can think of a place where you can put some instructions—or a better word would be the template. So classes are the template for creating objects, containing initial properties and implementation behavior. Classes can be concrete or abstract. We'll see what the difference is between the concrete and the abstract. Classes, on the other hand, are templates into which you can insert some fictitious instructions to provide a package name. So for example, I have a package name that says "FV," and these terms you will get inside the ACI fabric. Acidic f and V-read fabric nodes, for example, have vector read. If you want to read all the leaf and spinesinside the fabric, you can use that command also madeup to package name like identify function area of classFBJ, virtual jones class name represent a package class name. It's something very simple that we have in the programming. same type of references we have now. These classes further divided intoconcrete and the abstract. Abstract is nothing but the base class. So, for example, you have tyres and engines. You have tyres and engines. A motor vehicle can be derived from this. We're defining the tyres and the engines,so now we can see that. Okay, classes: I have an abstract class from which the concreteglass concrete class can be derived. So let's just stop here.
9. Managed object
In Acai fabric, everything is represented by an object. Now when we are talking about themanage object we can name that object. So how we can identify and name those objectswe have have relatively name and distinguished name. Now what is the difference between the relative and the distinguished name? That here we can see that for example you have tenant. Inside that tenant you can define application profileinside that you can define endpoint group. Under the tenant, we have the bridge domain and the subnets. Now, this particular tenant you can refer to as a globally unique ID, but inside that, when we are defining the AP and the endpoint groups, those we can refer to as a relative name. So inside the DN, I have relative names, and then we have the structure like this: we have the object and their relationship. So we have two types of relationships inside the object: one relationship is containment, and the other is associative. Now what does it mean? For example, I have a tenant and I have an application profile. Inside that I have endpoint group one, endpoint group two, and inside the tenant I also have the bridge domain. Now, even if the application profile and bridge domain have no relationship, they can be content, or for example, inside the application profile, I have EPG one and EPG two, indicating that they are contained. Now what you want is to do the communication between two endpoint groups so that you can create a contract. Someone will be the provider, and someone will be the consumer in that case that will become associated.So, again, the logic borrowed from object-oriented programming is that you have the main program, subprograms, call programs, and refer programmes from one place to another. So, in this case, the same example applies: someone can become the provider, someone can become the consumer, and we have something like a source and something like a target, okay? So we have the associative relationship in between them because the example is that if object one is EPG one and object two is EPG two, they need some sort of relationship in between to do the communication, and that's the example related to the manage object.
10. ACI object Programming options part 01
Object model interfaces Generally, what are the interfaces we use to do the configuration for the devices? Traditionally, we use CLI. Then we got the GUI. So many companies, vendors, they are used GUI as well. Finally, we have application programming interfaces (APIs) at this point. Also, we can do the configuration now because we have moved to the database-related network. It means I have the network and a database. So I can go and check the API document inside the Epic Controller, inside the Manage Object Browser. I can use Visual, which is the Web. And then I have MO's query as well. Directly I can query from the database. With help from Mo Manage Object query by the CLI, we can integrate with the Cobra SDK, and we have the list API. So all of these integrations with the modern, say, database and APIs that we have in our Epic fabric or ACI fabric. All right, so one by one, I'll show from where we'll go and get these documents. For example, if you go here in the document and then you have the API documentation, I'll walk you through it in the next section. That is, where will you get all of this information, how will you read it, and how will you do some baseline queries? And if you have that list of queries, you can use those queries from time to time to retrieve the information. So you can go to Epic's management information model reference. This is the Epic Object Model document. And here you can see the long list of classes in cclass, starting with A and then B-C-D like that. Then you have types, events, faults, FSM tasks, and log messages. Everything is class. I'm repeating this thing all the time. And then if you want to learn more about the classes, you can go to that particular class. You can learn about the construct of that specific class or the class as a whole. So in the next section, I will show you. I will log into the Epic Controller, and from there I will show you the various options that we have. I can go to any individual class, and then we'll learn more about that particular class. So I can see the fabric factor invariant and the FV fabric vector tina alias, as well as what properties I have with this specific class, here. You can see it here. So later, if I want to do some sort of programming, I should know what constructs I have for that particular class. If you want to see the debug message all the time, you can go and enable the debug information. So, whatever you do in your ACFfabric, you will see it all at the bottom. This will also be demonstrated in the following section while I log into the Epic Controller. Now, the next thing we have is the Visor. That is the GUI option. I can do the query with the help of a visual. So the same Epic Controller Management IP, followed by the visual HTML. I can log in with the username and the password, and then I can do the query related to what you can see over there. I have the class, or the DNSO, related to various components inside the Epic fabric. So for example, fabric note I can click there,I can go and check what is the DN. Here you can see the health score and the statics. So those are things you can get. The nice thing about this is that it assumes you have no idea what you want to query. You can go ahead and search. Also I'll show you that I want to listout what is number of tenants I have orhow many number of tenants I have. So I can go and query with, say, "If we have Tina, that is the fabric vector Tina," and you will find this; this is a very interesting search tool I have at the moment. If I enter any string or alphabet, it will give me all the possible options that it has. And then you can see the health score and the health stats. All that information that you can get from these queries lets you see the health of the Manage object like that. I will log into the device, and then I will show you those outputs. Then finally, we have the cliquey method as well, where you have the version query. This list is long few of the examples we have. So I'm doing the query for the tenant; the query relates to a specific tenant. Then if I want to grab something from the tenant, I can do the manage object query. So these are the options we have. And if you want to refer someone, you have some links. That is where you can go and check out more about the ACA programming options or the integration with various SDK platforms we have. Inside the ACA, you have the Zip Tub as well. You can check out the Cobra SDK as well. All right, so let's stop here, and the next section I log into the devices, and I'll show you a few examples related to programming and queries that we have. Yeah.
11. ACI object P2rogramming options part 02
Let me show you the programming options that we have. So here I can go to the admin, and you can see that I have APIinspector documentation. Start remote login with object store information. So if I click here, please show debug info. And now, at the bottom, you will see that whatever things those will be, they will come. So there's the current screen, the layout tab, fabricinfo, the deploy policy center, the current mo insideStorm, the Bowling model, and so on. So whatever things that I will do now,it will show you in the bottom. So, let's say I go into the documentation and find API documentation and Python SDK documentation. Cisco API home So for example, if I go and click API documentation, obviously the documentation for that particular service will open. And as I told you earlier, we have objects or classes, to be more precise, with names starting with the alphabet from A to Z. So whatever objects you have, you can go and check here. And if you want to study more about that, you can go and check out those particular classes. So let me select any of the objects. Let me scroll down so that we are very familiar with that particular object. So here I can see that I have policy after policy—so many policies. We have a planner; we have policies like that. I can go down. Let me click one more time on the classes. Scroll up. So I'll select any of the policies. Say, for example, we have VCtabu policies and VCtabu classes. I can go to the tabu contract. tabu contract. Now, once I click on the Sevizi tab, then this page opens. Now, in this case, that is one of the class files or classes; I can see what the classid is; what is the class label? Label, what is the encryption? Right, examine the access scope contained within the endpoint group, or EPG. And then I can scroll it down. So you can see the overview, naming diagram, containers, content, inheritance, events, faults, FSM, and so many other things that are correct. I can scroll down. I can go and check what legends I have related to this relational object model. In the model, you can see the tabu, then monitor policy, distinguished name, DN scope, policy, Vcscope, the tenant, and the various objects that we have. Likewise, I can scroll down. You can see what the VGAC super model object or managed object is. Then what is the container MOS FBTI? You can click here for FBT. I will go to that particular object. What are the relationals? So now you can understand why we have learned about the relational objects, the DN, and all that stuff. So what is at the top of the hierarchy and how does it go down? All these things can be seen here inside the container hierarchy. Then we have the contained hierarchy, we have inheritance, we have events, we have faults, we have a fishing property summary—all the information we have related to VC taboo is correct. We can go and take references from there. So likewise, you can go and check all the objects, and if you want to study more about that particular object, you will get the information from here. Now, the next piece that we have is the GUI form of the database query. That is a visual. So I told you that Epic is nothing but the database you have—not only the database but the complete management engine you have with the database. Now, that particular database If you want, you can do the query via the GUI. If you want, you can do the query via the CLI as well. So let me show you the GUI first. So I can go to the management IP and the vision you see on your screen, which is visible HTML. I can click "enter" here, and then it will ask me: What's the username? What's the password? So I'll go to the advanced menu and then accept the risk and continue. So let me continue from here. And now it is asking about the username and password. I can give you a username and password. Now I am inside the Epic Object Store browser. So I told you earlier that here you can go and you can search. You can go and you can run the query. So if the option is not there, the nice thing about this is that you will get the option. So if you go here and do a search, you will get the option. There are multiple options you will get at the moment, depending on what names we have. So if I type a fee and then run the query, you did not specify a property name. Would you like to find out about all the institutions of FBT? So that's why you can see that I'm getting all the FB tenants. Now it shows every tenant what I have. I have a tenant called Common. And then here you can see that the status is "unhealthy." You can see the health score, you can see the fault.Okay, so all these three things I am able to see if I go here and, if I want to see the health status, I'll go and click here to the health status, and then it is transferring the data. You can see at the bottom that you can check your health status. It will do the query, and it is showing what the health instance is. The current is 100 at its maximum. See where it's cleared. Previously it was 100 health is good—like the fact that we are doing the query. So if I know a different type of class file or how I want to do the query, I can go and do the query correctly. So we can go and type any option or anything that I am familiar with; I can go and check about that specific thing, not only for the tenant, but I may have multiple classes in a class file that I can check now. Next, let's do the same thing for this query from the CLI. So I can do the eMU query here, and for example, you can see the tenants, and if I want to get the tenant's name, I can give mgmt management. and now I can see what is on the DN and RN, and I can grasp something from the tenant list that we have. So, once I run the Tiny query, you can see that I have Tina named CLI cureTina, common Tina info Tina, management, and so on. Okay, if you want to do some specific querying for some sort of specific tiny thing, what you can do again is go to query D, and then you can select the DN name. So I can give the DN name, and now you can check or you can query with that particular perspective. Correct? So this is the way that we can check the API documents, we can see the debug messages, we have the GUI database query engine that is a visual, and then finally, we can do the same thing with the CLI as well. Alright, so these are the very basic steps we have. Let's just stop here.
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