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PowerShell and CLI
3. *UPDATED* Details about PowerShell and CLI for Managing Azure
So let's talk about the role of PowerShell and CLI and how you can get them for yourself to run Azure administration commands from your desktop. Now, if you've never heard of PowerShell before, or even if you have, you would know that PowerShell is a command-line utility that has been shipped and included with Windows for at least around ten years now. So, if you go into the most recent version of Windows 10 and start typing Windows Command and PowerShell, you should see a PowerShell app that has already been installed on your Windows machine. I should warn you, though, that the chances are that you have an older version of PowerShell. And so maybe one of the first things you want to do is get the latest version. The latest version of PowerShell is called PowerShell Seven, and it is a platform version of PowerShell. So no matter what operating system you have, you can find an Apple Seven that you can install and run PowerShell from your desktop. PowerShell PedalFive and previous versions were Windows-specific. Now, there's a second scripting language on the Azure Cloud Shell, but it's also available from your desktop, called Bash CLI. You should also be familiar with the Bash command line if you have any system. And the Azure CLI is the command-line interface that supports Bash scripting. Now, the Azure CLI is also cross-platform. If you want to use the CLI commands in Windows, you can do so by downloading the CLI client. So you have your choice between PowerShell and the CLI. There is no really strong difference between PowerShell and the CLI if you are just starting out and you don't know which one to choose. PowerShell is known as an object-oriented language, and maybe there are some more programmatic aspects. If you're a programmer and want to write some very complex scripts, PowerShell might be stronger for that. But I've seen shell users who start using CLI and fall in love with CLI, and I've seen CLI users who start using PowerShell and start appreciating the benefits of that. So it really is a specific preference. I can't really command one or the other. So if you have PowerShell, the CLI, or Bash, you're going to need the specific modules. Now, as I mentioned in a previous video, you also don't have to install a command-line PowerShell or CLI on your desktop. You can use the Azure Cloud Shell. And I already told you it's on the top line of your portal with the greater-than sign and underscore. It'll take you to a PowerShell CLI within the browser. And you can run your Azure PowerShell commands—like get-hyphen azvm—right within the browser. You don't even have to log in; it will use your already-logged-in credentials, and there's a CLI version. Actually, the great thing about PowerShell in the Cloud Shell is that the CLI commands work. And so PowerShell inside the cloudshell is actually a platform. It supports both languages. And so that's an AZ VM list that's a CLI command, and I'm running it in PowerShell, and it works. So let's talk specifically about PowerShell. Microsoft changed the module's name about a year ago; it was previously known as Azure RM. I still see references here and there, whether it's inside this course or elsewhere on the Web, to the Azure RM module. And now the PowerShell module is called AZ. So you really must switch over. You can't expect to run old Azure RM module commands forever. Okay? You cannot both have them stored at the same time. So you can't install PowerShell and have the Azure RM modules and the AZ modules. You have to choose. Now, there is a way to have two versions of PowerShell installed. So if you want PowerShell Five and PowerShell Seven installed, you can install both. And then the powerhouse five will be using the old Azure RM modules, and PowerShell seven can be using the new AZ modules. These are, as of the time of recording, some of the more recent versions of PowerShell. And of course, they come out with releases. Over the new ones, I believe PowerShell is at 6.4 and PowerShellSeven is at 7.1. So PowerShell Seven is the latest. That is the one that I recommend. Now, once you've got AZ installed, you're going to want to install the AZ module. It's installed the Hyphen module named AZ, and you want them to be able to update the module. So the Clobber parameter allows you to overwrite. And if there are errors and things are giving rise to conflicts, you might have to force them. There is no update command. You really just have to reinstall the module on top of the old module. When you're running PowerShell in your own location, then you're going to have to connect to your Azure account in order to do anything. So there's a login process that doesn't happen within Cloud Show. Really, the decision for you is whether you're going to want your scripting to be on your local machine or whether you're okay using the Cloud Show. You can upload your scripts and store them in your Cloud Show account, but some people will prefer to keep their scripts local, whether they use them in a source control system, GitHub, or whatever. But because you want your scripts to be local, you'll use a local version of PowerShell or the CLI. So you're going to have an assignment after this. So I'm going to ask you to go and download the late 7.0 release of PowerShell. The link to the download is in the resources of the video. Go and get the latest PowerShell. The time of recording is 7.1; maybe by this time it is 7.2 or whatever the latest version is; go and download it. Here is the URL to the analogy. Attach the URL to it as well, GitHub, and you're going to want to install PowerShell. Run PowerShell. Administrator mode. Okay, so you don't run PowerShell quite right. Click "Run as Administrator." And then you're going to want to install the Azure AZ Module. It's going to download and install. So this is your assignment. I want you to pause the video. After this video, go and get PowerShell Seven, download it, and install it on whatever operating system it is that you're running on. And get the AZ module and use that command: install module, name AZ, allow clobber. And when you come to the next video, you're going to get a PowerShell module installed.
4. *UPDATED* Live Demo: Installing PowerShell Core with Az Module
Now, in order to use PowerShell on your computer, you're going to need to download and install a recent version of it. Most Windows operating systems in the past ten years have come with a version of PowerShell. But chances are, even if you're running Windows 10, you're going to need to get a more recent version because they're always iterating and improving it. The URL is Microsoft.com PowerShell.It is a GitHub repository where we can see the code. If you're into open source code, you can go check out PowerShell as a coding project. I'm going to go under tags here. So I clicked, it says 90 tags, and we can see that the most recent version of PowerShell is 7.0.3. There are also legacy versions 6.2 and a few versions 7.1. In fact, if we click on releases we can seethat 7.0.3 is tagged as the latest release of PowerShell. When you go in and visit this yourself, it's going to be different because Microsoft is obviously improving it all the time. So make sure you're on a 7.0 release of PowerShell or newer. We can see all of the previous versions of PowerShell available if I scroll down on this page. And there are so many, right? We have Mac OS X, and we have a generic Linux version. We have all the Windows versions. Of course. Enterprise Debian and Ubuntu No matter what system you have, chances are that there's a package here for you. Otherwise, there is the code, and you can download it and package it yourself. So I run a 64 bit versionof Windows that's all do probably. And so the version I use is the X 64 site package. I download that and install it, and then I'll get the most recent version of PowerShell on my system. So I'm going to call the MSI package Here we'll go through the installer steps. I'm going to accept the default. It will add it to my environment variable so that I can run PowerShell from the command line. It will also register with the Windows event; simply accept the default since they are installed. And so it's going to go in to install the latest version of PowerShell on my PC. So that didn't take long, and I could just click this box and say "launch PowerShell" right from the installer. But we actually need to run PowerShell in administrator mode. So I'm just going to finish. Now, PowerShell should be installed on my system, and I'm going to have to go into the Windows menu in order to get it. So if I see even PowerShell listed as recently added to the menu, The trick here is that I have to run it as administrator. So I right click on it, go into more, and it says "Run as Administrator" as an option. So let's run this as administrator. Now, you can see it says 70 three.I realised it wasn't readable, so I increased the font size here to 70 three. There is now a way to tell even if you are not reading it directly from the screen. There is called PS version table. The property is then the PS version. And this will also return seven as the major version and zero as a minor patch three.Now, by default, you're not going to have any of the Azure commands installed. You actually need to install the AZ module in order to work with this. And so some of the AZ commands are going to be like "get azvm." And if I was to run this, it would fail because the AZ module is not installed. All right, so to install what is calledthe AZ module, we're going to have touse a PowerShell commandlet called Install module. So it's install Hyphen module with the capitalized. And we're going to say his name is AZ. So that would enable the Azure module in PowerShell. We have two properties that we have to provide. One is Allow Clobber, and this is what's going to allow the installation to overwrite some existing files. And then the second command is forced. And so if you already have the AZ module installed on your system, then you're going to have to force it to allow it to have two versions. Now, that's the interesting thing about PowerShell. As you install modules, it's going to install additional versions side by side. And this to you. So I'm going to say allow, club, and force. So now it's going to go off. It has to ask me permission. It might ask you permission to use the repository. In this case, it didn't, but it might ask you for permission. And so you do. And now we can see that it's just an alphabetical order. downloading dozens of packages for each of the Azure services. We can see IoT, logic, apps, marketplace monitors, etc. So this is only going to take a minute or two. I'm on a very high-speed connection. It really depends on your connection. We're going to let that install. Now that's done. Now if we want to see the number of versions that I have installed of the AZ module, I'm not going to type it out. But there's this get installed module command, and if I pass it the name AZ and say all versions, it'll show me every version of the AZ rules that I have installed. And I'm actually going to only show the name and version using this pipe into the select object. Now, I can see that I've been doing this for a while. I just installed a 4.5, I believe, with this command. But I previously had 4.34.13 and could start to go and uninstall some of these rooms if it starts to get too much. But it's not really hurting anything. By default, when you use PowerShell, it's going to go and get the most recent version unless you specify an older version. As a result, having multiple versions running concurrently will not be detrimental. So that's how you install the AZ module into PowerShell. Now, just to prove that this works, I'm going to show you two things. One is that we still can't just run a PowerShell command. If I said get ACVM, I'm not connected, so it doesn't know who I am. It's going to give me an error message based on authentication, effectively not even giving me an error message. So what I need to do is select Connect as the account. So your Connect AZ account is going to ask you to log into Microsoft Azure using your user ID and password. You can see there's a command here to open a Web browser to this URL, which I'm going to copy, and the code that I need to use to authenticate. So I'm going to bring my browser here. I'm going to enter in the URL, and it says "enter code." I'm going to have to bring this to the site, I guess. And I can say this code, Iguess it's a one time use code. So it's okay. So it's e GAC xxkh four. That's my proof that I am who I am. Now, I'm already logged into Azure. It's going to ask me to pick the account. It's going to ask for my password, which my password manager takes care of. And now I've signed into PowerShell, and I can close this window. PowerShell is going to come back having logged in; it recognises me and has my subscription. When I say get Azvm, it will go and look for any actual machines I have on my account, which I don't. So I've got no virtual machines created in my account, but I know I have a web app. So I'm going to say, get the Azweb app. And now it's gone and downloaded all of the Web apps that I have running against my account. Now we know that this is asuccessful installation of PowerShell installation easy moduleconnecting to my Azure account. And I can recognise the Web apps that I have on my account.
5. Switching to Another Subscription
So most people who are watching this are only going to have a single Azure subscription. If that's the case, then you don't really need to know this. But if you have multiple subscriptions at your disposal, then you're going to want to be able to set the Azure subscription that you want to create resources in, because otherwise you may not be creating resources in the subscription that you wish. We're in a PowerShell command here, and I'm already logged in. I connected to Azure, and now I'm running the command get subscription. Hit her. And it comes up and says there are actually three subscriptions associated with my accounts. True. Now there is the subscription I use for my training, which is the first one. There's a subscription I use as a demonstration, and there's another client's subscription here. So if we are looking to set one of these subscriptions as being an active one, then what we need to do is basically create a context variable. As a result, the dollar sign context is equivalent to an AZ subscription. We've got to spell it right, and we're passing the parameter subscription ID. Now we're going to grab the ID from one of these subscriptions. I'm going to grab my primary one and paste it here, and that's going to get the context of the subscription and set this variable with it. Now we want to say "Zed context" to our context. By doing that, we're basically saying this is the description we're going to be using to create resources in this PowerShell session. So if you are facing multiple subscriptions, there's a very easy method here with the Get as a subscription and the set AZ context commands in order to set the one that you work with.
Manage resource groups
1. Resource Groups and Resource Locks
So in this section, we're going to talk about resource groups. Now resource groups are one of those foundational elements of the Azure Resource Management model, and they're basically an organisational structure. So you can create as many any resourcegroups pretty much as you need and inresource group is the resources that you create. So you'll see in my AZ 100 resource group as I create a virtual machine that all of the related disks, network interfaces, storage, accounts for diagnostics, public IP addresses, network security groups, and virtual networks—all seven different resources—are all inside the same resource group. Now, as we've already seen so far, there are many different benefits to having things in a resource group that you can do. We're going to talk about policies in a second, and we're going to talk about locks being able to deploy at the resource group level so we can generate the scripts and templates required to recreate this resource group off of the resource group level and do reports. So in terms of the costs of a resource group, it is very easy to fill out. So resource groups are basically that type of organisational structure. So why don't we just create a new one here? So I'm going to go add andI'm going to call it Azsjd New. Now the resource group does have to be unique to your account, and so you cannot create two resource groups with the same name, even if they're in different regions. Okay? So you'll see this has allowed me to do it, and then I say "Create," and it's pretty instantaneous that it's creating this group. Now there are no resources in this group, and it doesn't cost me anything, so I can have this group stick around, and it really doesn't harm me in any way. I can choose to add resources directly from that resourcegroup level, although it's probably more common to add them from this plus sign here or from the marketplace. But we have resources. One of the convenient things about resource groups is that if you do get into creating lots and lots of resources, you can delete the resource group and that will also clean up all of the resources inside of it. So when you're doing a lot of testing, keeping your resources in a single resource group makes it very easy to delete it and then realise that you're not going to get charged for it. Deleting the resource group is pretty straightforward. You actually have to type the name of the resource group into a text box in order for that delete to take effect. Let me go back to my other resource group. Now let's talk about two elements. One is locks. Now the locks are basically allowing you to place a lock on the resources in the resource group so that you don't accidentally make changes to them or accidentally delete them. You can do this, basically, to prevent accidents. So if you've got this resource like the Academy Resource Group, I want to add a lock and I want to see a ninja. And there are two types of locks. One restricts deletions and one restricts any changes. So if I put a read-only lock onto this resource group, I don't see any changes. Please save. Now, basically, it is restricting the contents of this resource group from changing. So let's show how that takes effect. If I were to try to add a new resource, let's say I wanted to add a web app resource, I would click Create. You'll see that there is a red exclamation point next to the resource group. It says the selected resource group is read only. So I can't even create resources in the existing resource group because the resource group is locked. Similarly, if I was to try to change something, let's say I go into one of my virtual machines and then I want to stop that virtual machine, it says, "Are you sure?" I say, yes. You'll see that I'm getting an alert saying that. Please remove the lock and try again. So I can't even stop the virtual machine, let alone delete it or basically make any use of it without the lock on the resource group being removed. Locks, like everything else, are now role-based access controlled, so you can control who has access to remove the lock. Now, there's also this subscription-level view of locks. So when I go to the subscription level view, I can see which locks I have, and my no changes please lock is viewable at that top level.
2. Resource Group Policies
Now we're talking about policies when we're talking about tagging and cost. But we definitely belong to the resource group. There is a Policies tab, and we can see that there are no policies that are affecting this scope. So the resource group itself is a scope. Okay, let's go into the assignments. And we can say "assign policy." If we go into the definition again, instead of looking at the tags, for instance, let's look at resource. So there are policies that affect resource groups. So we can assign a tag and its default value to the resource group. And so if the value is not defined when the resource group is created, then it will have a default value. Okay, there are also tag-allowed locations that are enforced. Let's choose that one. So far, locations are allowed for resources, and this one in particular has parameters. So we can say that we only want our resources to be created in Canada, the Central US, and the Eastern US. or western us. We only allow our resource to create a limited number of regions, which I will signify. And so now that the resource group level has been set, we've restricted the allowed location for those groups. So there are ways of doing policies at the resource group level, right from within the resource group.
3. Move Resources
So we've seen that resource groups are an organisation structure, and as you plough more and more resources into resource groups, things might start to get a bit messy. You may have started out trying to have a fairly clean organization, but then over time you end up allocating more and more resources to the same group, and things start to get a bit messy and a bit confusing. So it is actually possible to clean up your groups and reorganise them a little bit by movingresources Right in the top menu here, we see the move command, and we can see that depending on the resource, we can move it to another resource group or even move this resource to another subscription. If we select the resource, we can choose to move it to another region. So let's say we don't want this app service running in Central anymore and we want to move it to the east, west, or some other region. So individual resources can even be related. So let's choose to move to another resource group. Now it's going to select all the resources by default, but let's say we only want to move one and two. I've chosen the application insights and the app services for one and two.
Now I've already got a resource group to move to. But you can create a group here. but let's go down. I created one called New RG. There it is. I do have to agree that now the resource group is going to change because sourceID has the resource group in it. So when you have that fully qualified resource groupID, we can show you that in a second. So I can say, "Move to the new resource group and click Okay." And so Azure is going to go off and basically rehome resources into a new resource group. Let's let that run. So that took a few minutes, but it does say the move is complete. We can see that this is no longer in the old RG, and if I switch to the new RG, let's go over to that resource group. The web apps have been successfully moved. I'll just show you the resource group ID. If we go under properties, we can see that the source has an ID, and the resource ID has the source group name as part of the ID. So any of the scripts that you have that deploy resources to a resource group, the specific resource ID of either the group or the item is going to need to change. But that's just inherent in the fact that the resourcegroup name is part of the fully qualified ID. Anyway, that's how you move resources. It was fairly painless, and we do have lots of options.
Manage subscriptions and governance
1. *UPDATED* Accounts, Subscriptions, and Resource Groups
So in this section of the course, we're going to be talking about subscriptions and resource groups. And I wanted to find some terms before we got started. A, when I'm talking about Azure accounts or Azure subscriptions, you know that they're slightly different concepts. So the four terms we're going to talk about in this video are the Azure account, its tenant or subscription, and a resource group. So let's start off talking about one of the more basic concepts, which is an Azure account. Now, in the context of this, it's basically a user ID. It can be a benefit or it can represent a program. So you can basically assign an account to an application so that the application can run its own security context. It is considered bad programming practise to take a real person's user ID and password and programme that into an application. So when we're talking about people who have access to resources within Azure or assigned resources elsewhere in your solution, you're talking about an account. And that can either be a person who is yourself or someone who works in your organization, or it could be an application. This is the basis of authentication. Now, we have a section of this course talking about Azure Active Directory reunification separately. But basically, this is the toplevel definition of an account. A related topic is a tenant. So whereas the account represents the person, the tenant represents the organisation or the company, and you usually have a domain name associated with that. So we live in this modern era where every big company has its own domain name. And you may want to start using that domain name for your user ID in terms of Microsoft Azure. And so it's going to be yourcompany.com as the tenant's domain name.
Now if you don't have one, Microsoft will give you one. So they have the onmut.com extension. And so when you create your tenant, it's going to create the tenant name onsoft.com, and that will be the domain you're given if you don't provide one. Now, basically, it represents what is called a dedicated instance of Azure Active Directory. And as I said, we do have a whole section of this course talking about Azure Active Directory. So I won't go too far into it here. It's important to know that you have this organization, which is a tenant, and every account belongs to at least one organization. There's no concept of having an Azure account, and you're not part of any tenant; that's just to say you're not an Azure user, if that's you. So when you log in, you're going to have a default tenant, and that's the tenant that you have. You can also switch tenants, and it's also easy to create tenants. and we'll get into that in this course. Next up, we'll talk about the cost of subscriptions. So now we know that the account is the user and the tenant is the organization. The subscription is the billing agreement with Microsoft. And so there are many different types of subscriptions. You can have a free subscription or pay as you go. There are enterprise agreements. There are different I think there are probably a dozen different programmes that Microsoft has that are payment plans for subscriptions. And so the subscription is the level at which payments get made. You're going to have a credit card or an enterprise agreement that the bill is going to get sent to.
And so any usage of resources within Azure gets billed to the subscription. So we should say that not every tenant has a subscription. So, if you go ahead and create a new account today, you will have no subscription by default. Now what this means is the tenant can't create Azure resources, so there's no billing unit, and therefore there's no way to even create a resource, even a free one. So you can have tenants without subscriptions, and it's also possible to have multiple subscriptions. So you might have an organisation that has Action and Development as two separate billing entities, and you can create two subscriptions. So there is a multi-subscription option. Now, accounts are basically assigned roles within the tenant. And so they can be an owner or a contributor or a reader, or you can give very granular role assignments to users. So when you create a user, you assign them a role. You can actually create owners, and these will have full control of your tenant. So, obviously, you'll be cautious, but it is possible to have more than one owner on a tenant. And again, if you wish to add other accounts to your tenant, you can invite them and then grant them roles as well. Now I'm going to talk about resource groups, but before we do, let's talk about resources themselves. So when I see resources in this course, I'm referring to any entity managed by Azure. And so these are the typical ones. Virtual machines, web apps, storage accounts, SQL databases, and anything else that exists because you created it is a resource.
However, these resources can also generate resources. Public IP addresses are created when you create a virtual machine network or interface card network. There are all sorts of resources that get created when you create a virtual machine. And each of these large resources has its own set of sub-resources. So those are also included as resources. And just like you can assign accounts, permissions, and roles within the tenant level, you can also assign people's individual resources. Finally, the resource group is that collection. It's organizing resources into a subscription. So I look at it like a folder structure. You go into your account; you have your subscription. Under the subscription, you have access to resource groups. All resources must belong to one and only one resource group. Now, it may be easy to do some particular tasks. You can grant permissions at the resource group level. And so certain accounts can only access the one resource group it sandboxes them into. You can also delete a resource group, and that will delete all the resources inside. It's one of the quickest ways to do what you did. So it's a way of separating out projects and keeping unrelated things separate. You don't have a single resource group with hundreds of resource sources inside, and so keeping them separate allows you to clean up pretty easily. So those are the four basic concepts as we get into this section.
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