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Domain 01 - Information Security Governance
20. Domain Tasks Part1
GRC, which stands for Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance, is an example of a growing recognition of the convergence of your assurance process, or integration. Now, governance itself is of course a process that an organisation uses to set the risk tolerance, identify the risks and their associated impacts, and help prioritise their mitigation based on the objectives and the risk tolerance. So if you think about that, the goal here is number one: who can set risk tolerance? In other words, how much risk am I willing to accept? There are different levels of management that may have different abilities to tolerate risk to a certain degree. But it still has to be approved from the top down. As well as Of course. The agreement of those things that are important The classifications. The criticality. the prioritisation of what we're trying to protect. what assets are important. What are the impacts? How will it affect the overall business objectives? So, with governance, we are looking at all of that to put it in the proper order, the priorities, and, of course, utilising resources as best as we can for overall risk mitigation. Again, the goal is to hit a certain security objective that is again integrated with the business objectives.
21. Domain Tasks Part2
As we mentioned, risk management is just a process to figure out what your risk tolerance is going to be. At least that's part of it. Now, number one, risk management has to identify potential risks and what those impacts can be, and it has to prioritise the mitigation based on the business objectives and risk tolerance. I work in a city that has large microchip manufacturing plants, which are very large in our city. One point employee 10% of the peopleof the city that I live in. Now, their business objective is to make chips, memory flash, and other similar items, to the point where they're willing to take their lawyers and secretaries, administrative assistance, even the board itself, the CEOs, and all the way through executive management, all of whom are familiar with at least one part of the chip making process. That is, if the worst happens, they can enter the fabrication units and perform some functions to keep the business running. Now I use that to get a sense of the company's goals and objectives. So, when you consider the risks and their prioritization, obviously, producing those chips is what they sell, and the reason they're even in business, is of very high priority. And if they had some sort of natural disaster that may have prevented people from being able to get to work, or if they had labour issues, or whatever the case may be, their goal was to have a way to mitigate that risk so that they could get people into the fabrication unit and continue to produce the product that kept them in business. As a result, risk management includes this. Now I use that example because I like to sometimes focus away from just pure technology and pure information, and I realise it's an important aspect of what we're talking about with the Certified Information Security Manager, but we still have to integrate it together. And I think some of these examples help kind of take what might be a little bit more obscure about ones and zeros and the protection of that information and put it into just a great idea of saying, Hey, this is an idea of prioritization. Now, part of that prioritisation to keep those factories running is a good It has the infrastructure for the communication of all the systems, but I don't want to go quite that far. All right, so that's an idea of risk management. They realised what was important. Now compliance means basically recording and monitoring the policies, procedures, and controls that are being used to make sure that the policies and standards are being followed. Initially, the goal of GRC was to respond to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which is part of the regulatory requirements for some parts of our industry. And the goal there was to have a way to make sure we were within those regulations. How do you know you're following those regulations or whatever standards you're looking at? Through the recording and the monitoring. These are not going to be things that wejust kind of, from rockets perspective, fire and forget. We need ongoing monitoring to make sure that we are in compliance.
22. Business Model for Information Security Part1
BMIs stands for the business model for information security. It started at the Institute for Critical Information Infrastructure Protection of the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California, and the ISAPA has worked on the development of the Systematic Security Management Model. The basic theory says that a system should be viewed entirely and not part by part. They should be viewed as a whole. All right, so that kind of gets us back to the idea of talking about security as being kind of an overall process and not just looking at it piece by piece, not having one department unit work on security separate from another department unit, and not having some overlap or integration where they can work together for that common goal. You.
23. Business Model for Information Security Part2
Now, when we think about BMIs, there are four main elements of this model. Start off with number one, the organization's design strategy. That means an organisation is really, you know, a group or a collection of people, assets, and processes that are working together to reach a common goal. The organization's strategy will specify business goals and objectives that should be followed or achieved. Now part of that design strategy—and that was kind of the overall picture—is to look at the people. Now, people are your human resources. There are also security issues that surround them, and they're very important. And this should be a definition of, basically, who implements each part of the strategy, going back to roles and responsibilities. Now, this might include even parts of your human resource types of policies, such as your recruitment strategy, your hiring practices, employment issues, your training and awareness, and even a termination policy. We'll get a chance to talk a little bit more about each of these as we, you know, get past the overview and go into a little more depth about each aspect. But it is a part of the overall business model for information security.
24. Business Model for Information Security Part3
A process is a kind of informal and informal mechanism that is required to help things get done. Processes identify, measure, manage, and control risk, availability, and integrity, as well as confidentiality. And their goal is to also assure accountability. Now, real quick, part of what I just said is sometimes the definition of security. A lot of people look at information security as the CIA triad. That is C for confidentiality, I for integrity, and A for availability. What that entails is kind of the concept, especially if we're talking about our focus on digital information: how do we keep our information confidential? Well, one of the main solutions can be a type of encryption where we're encrypting information while it's being stored or while it's in motion through communications. But we also need to make sure that the information doesn't get changed. The modification could have resulted from malicious intent, an unintentional deletion, or a simple human error. And availability is also back to that idea that if I have too much security, then I can't get to the information, or availability can get us into the idea of redundancies so that no one failure can keep us from gathering the information we need. And finally, adding accountability is just making sure we have a log of the activities. So the gold of our processes and security, especially, again, as I said, whether formal or informal, are the mechanisms that we use to get things done. They are there to manage, to identify, to measure, and to control the risk in those categories of security. Now, your process should be aligned with your security policies and business requirements. Consider emergence and be willing to change in response to these processes. Think about it. Technology and information change, and they're changing faster and faster with each and every passing year—maybe even several times within a year. Now your process should be well documented and well communicated to the public. It needs to be easy to understand, and if you think of it as well documented, well communicated, easy to understand, and usable, you might be able to use the term "transparent" for them. It's also something that needs to be periodically reviewed. Again, the change in the way in which we do business Number one, if you think about a business that's been around for any number of years, what they originally started doing might have nothing to do with what they are doing now. I use one electronics firm I can think of that started off with making medical equipment and suddenly got into servers and PCs, and they sold off the medical equipment. It's almost as though the original products they were making are no longer there, but the company is still going. Okay, what does that mean? That means that whatever processes they may have been using originally probably need to be reviewed. Number one, because of the evolution of their business and also the technology of communications and how well people can connect, that's constantly changing. So that means that we can't just leave a process stale, saying, "Oh, it was good ten years ago." I'm sure it's still fine today.
25. Business Model for Information Security Part4
Another part of the BMI is technology. Now, technology basically provides all the tools, applications, and infrastructure to make your processes more efficient. Technology makes up a core part of your enterprise infrastructure, and it's a critical component in accomplishing the mission of that corporation. Again, given the importance of information in today's businesses, we require an infrastructure for storing and communicating data, and technology is a component of that. Now, we can also use technology to help reduce or mitigate risk. But don't ever think of technology as the complete solution. As an example, again, I might choose todo as a part of mitigation of riskusing a software solution to scan for vulnerabilities. But that's great; that's an automation process, but it's not the complete solution. I would still like people to audit or perform a penetration test so that they can use human factors that we may not have in the software factors to determine whether security is as good as we think it is. And at the same time, the best of technology is only as good as, you might say, a person's weakest password or the person giving away their password over the phone. For social engineering, I mean, you have the best system in the world. But if I have a user who tells peoplehow to log in, what good is that technology? We might be able to become detectives at that point. So the other part we have to remember is that, with all of the technological advances, people are still often the weakest link in our security.
26. Dynamic Interconnections Part1
The term "dynamic interconnections" is a way of linking the elements together, and it sometimes can exert a multidirectional force that can push and pull as things change. It's kind of the idea of being dynamic. Now, the motion that occurs in our dynamic interconnections can force our models either out of balance or help bring them back into balance to a stable point. We're going to look at six dynamic interconnections. They are governance, culture, enablement, support, emergence, human factors, and architecture.
27. Dynamic Interconnections Part2
now as part of the administration That's basically where we're going to set the limits within which the enterprise is going to operate. It's implemented in the process thatmonitors performance to describe activities toachieve compliance sense while also maintainingadaptability to your current conditions. The culture part of dynamic interconnections is your pattern of behaviors, your beliefs, assumptions, and attitudes about how things are done. Now, culture kind of evolves like a shared history for a group that goes through a common set of experiences. I remember having a job that required me to work nights when I was in college. A part of it involved technology for what it was backin the very early 80s compared to today, very archaic. And the culture had pretty much come up with the way they do things. And I was very young, I was energetic, and I was always experimenting with other ways, hopefully staying within my policies. But I was trying to find ways to be able to do better, to get more information. Okay, just as a quick background, it was involved in the support of a law enforcement function, and I was finding other ways to try to link these disparate types of information. We had a local city, a local county, and the federal government's information in the state, and none of those systems really talked with each other. My goal was to find those connections, to find ways to gather more information, because I thought it would be cool to assist the investigations by providing information and assistance. And I did, by the way. I got a lot of accolades later for the work that I did, but I had a lot of people angry at me who I was working with because they were saying, "That's not how we do things, that's not how we've done it," and "You're doing so much that it's soon going to be expected of us to do the same thing." And I was thinking, great, we should. But you see, I was attacking culture. The culture was an evolved, shared history. I was 19 years old and working with people in their forties on average. They had shared a common set of experiences. They evolved when there weren't computer systems. So that's another thing that's kind of a dynamic interconnection. I know, as I previously stated, that after the initial friction, I received a lot of praise, and we saw changes occur; this is the dynamic interconnections. Now, these behaviours sometimes become unwritten rules. And that means that it could become the normal way of doing business, and if it's unwritten rules, we might be enforcing some set of standards that we haven't written down. And that's a tricky situation, especially in terms of good governance. We shouldn't have those situations.
28. Dynamic Interconnections Part3
Now, as we look at the dynamic interconnections, another part of it was the enablement and support. Now, these are dynamic interconnections of technology with the process, the idea of enablement, and support. One method of compliance with technical security measures, policies, and procedures as directed makes the process usable and easy. You might even say it was transparent. Now, that's an important aspect to help enable this entire process. If it is not transparent, simple, and easy to understand, it may prevent people from using the technology or provide insufficient support. So we need that to occur to be able to again get the technology in the process to work together. Back to the idea of realising I had city, county, state, and federal information while attempting to work with that technical aspect. I was trying to enable it to help me. I was trying to make it support my work. Emergence can be described as the developing, growing, and evolving of patterns that rise out of the life of the enterprise. Now, with the emergence of dynamic interaction between people and processes, we can place or introduce solutions. Things like getting feedback loops to find process improvements and other issues that would work in the system design lifecycle Again, the idea is that number one, as things keep developing and growing or evolving, we get feedback from the people that are working with those processes, and they may be our first indicators that a process needs to be reviewed, that we have ways we can improve things, or maybe something has changed in the system design. Again, all of this together is just considered the "emergence of technology" as we compare it with the way we've been doing business.
29. Dynamic Interconnections Part4
Some other parts of the dynamic interactions would be things like human factors. Now, we could consider that the gap between technology and people, which is a critical part of the information security program, That is, of course, where training and awareness might be able to help us. Because if people don't understand how the technology works, then they're probably not going to follow the policies, and that could then evolve or become a potential security problem. Architecture is kind of the comprehensive, informal encapsulation of looking at everything as a whole: people, processes, policies, and technology—everything that's going to comprise your organization's security practice. And again, that's going to lead to a lot of dynamic interconnections between the different components of your architecture as you're trying to achieve your overall security program.
30. Lesson 3: Information Security Concepts and Technologies
In this lesson, we're going to talk about information security concepts and technologies. Now, we're going to kind of hit these as a high-level overview because there are some basic concepts, terms, and technologies that an information security manager should understand and implement within their job. Now, it's important to understand that you should not consider that you have to be an expert on every single one of these technologies, but to understand what their importance is and the role they play, which helps us with the management process. That's where we can assign or delegate different roles to different groups of people who have expertise in different areas. But at a high level, we need to be able to kind of help put all of these pieces together. So some of the things that we look at and some of the definitions of things that we should know are things like access control. Now, access control is sometimes a technological aspect of a mechanism that controls access to information systems, resources, and even physical access. That means that the fact that you may need to have a username and password, be authenticated, and get permission to open a file would be an access control. The fact that you have to have a key card or a magnetic key lock to get into the front door of your building is another type of access control. So we see that it works in a lot of different aspects as far as doing just what it sounds like: controlling access to some resource. We now consider architecture to be the structure and relationships between various elements. A little bit ago, we looked at the architecture as kind of this overview of the entire organization—the people and the policies and the standards, the technology, and everything else that comes together for our goal of getting to that common goal. Attacks. Now, attacks are the types of security breaches that could occur. And it is important to remember that in our security management, we don't just focus on technology. Again, when we think of taxes, many people focus solely on attackers, on people who come in as hackers. But it can also be people breaking through the physical boundaries of our building, stealing technology, laptops being stolen out of back seats, and lots of different types of security breaches we could see. Auditability is the ability to list the transactions that have occurred in a system. I like the term "log".That's easier to think of than logging. Now, the importance of logging is due to a number of things. Now, for a lot of people, we use logging as a post mortem review of why something died—were there any error messages that told us why a system failed? But we can also look at logging from a proactive standpoint, looking for signs of attacks, changes in strategy that people may have in trying to break into systems, or looking for things that are anomalous activities that are just outside the norm, but we can see those and do some investigation because of logging. Again, being a little proactive Authentication is a process that really involves the verification of an identity. Again, I can just use username and password as an idea. Your username and password really are your identity when you're logging into a system, and the combination that you provide has to be compared against a database, whether a directory service or just some list of users and passwords, to make sure that the combination is correct. And if it is, then we could say you have been successfully authenticated.
31. Information Security Concepts and Technologies Part1
Now, your authorization is the next step after authentication. Authentication, of course, verifies who you are. Authorization is basically: What can you do? They are the actions that are allowed. Some people might consider that part of the access control. Again, saying that you can use this printer, you can open this file, and you're allowed to come in through this door Again, authorization is more than just technical. Availability is important. That's how accessible information is. And we might approach availability by having clusters of servers so if one fails, the other takes over; having spare parts readily available; and having datacenters built in two distinct locations to take advantage of different power grids so that in the case of power loss, things are still available. I hope you're seeing how I'm trying to expand a lot of these definitions and concepts outside of just the technology. business dependency analysis. Now that's a way for us to look at how important a resource is to an organization. And that's going to be a big part of what we see in a business impact analysis, which is understanding the results and the consequences of a compromise. So again, if I'm thinking about maybe being a financial institution and people say, "What's the most important aspect of what you have?" Well, is it my customer accounts? And how much money do they have in these accounts? Is it the connectivity from the data centre to the branches? We need to look at all of that during the business impact analysis to understand what would happen if we lost any part of that. What would be the results of the consequences? And is there a dependency? If I lost network connectivity, what are the dependencies? What would that affect? Maybe there are lots of branch offices for this financial institution. All right, another term we see is confidentiality, which is basically the encryption of data, protecting data in transit and at rest. At rest means where it's physically stored, and in transit, of course, is the communication process. Controls are the term we use for a process that lowers risk. Now, that process could take the form of an actual physical device. A firewall can be considered as a control. It is something that is trying to lower or reduce the risk. A countermeasure would be your action or process to help mitigate a vulnerability. Again, maybe a firewall might be a little more attuned to that type of solution. A countermeasure. The criticality is part of a classification system. It's where we look at every resource and every asset and determine its classification. How important is it to the function of what we do as a business? Business? Remember, our goal is to promote business objectives. And the criticality is what we would say about how important a certain resource is for a business to succeed.
32. Information Security Concepts and Technologies Part2
Other concepts that we see are things like data classification. That brings us back to the criticality. That's where we can place asensitivity label on the information. For human resources employees, sensitive information is considered private. It's a high sensitivity level if it's how we did in our profit-loss status. Things that we publish publicly have a different type of classification. So that's a process that we also have to look at. Exposures are what we call the areas that may be subject to a threat. In fact, we often use exposure factors in a lot of the quantitative risk analyses. As an example, if I'm studying the risks of what would happen if there was a fire within the building, we would say, okay, what would be our exposure? How much of the building do we think may be lost to the fire prior to it being contained and extinguished? And so that's kind of, again, the exposure factor. If somebody breaks into or hacks into my database server, what is the exposure? What data could they get? Gap analysis is how we figure out where we are versus where we want to be. It's a comparison of where we are currently with our objectives or goals. Governance provides control and direction for the activities. In fact, governance, as we said, you kind of need toknow what these concepts are aspect of doing our job. Identification is the process ofauthentication or your identity. It's just information provided by a person or a thing. The term "impact" is the potential of a risk materializing. Integrity lets us know about the accuracy and validity of information. Now remember, integrity could encompass people making accidental changes, accidental deletions, inaccurate reporting to begin with, or malicious alteration or destruction of information. Either way, integrity is about trying to assure that if something's changed, we can tell that it's been changed and hopefully have the means of being able to restore it to what it's supposed to be. Now, in the process of using controls and countermeasures, we often talk about creating security as layered security, defence in depth. Again, "defence in depth" just means that we try to add a lot of layers for you to get through if your goal was to attack. So I may have a screening firewall that's filtering a lot of garbage packets, and those that make it through my actual firewall and those that make it through that firewall might go to an intrusion detection system. After it gets to the intrusion detection system, it might make it to the server, where, once at the server, I may have antivirus and spyware running or even host-based intrusion detection prior to the data actually getting into and being processed by the operating system. Now, you might not have all of those layers, but the goal of the idea was that with so many layers of security between screening, dropping packets, inspecting packets, and getting to that endpoint We hope that by the time the data or information arrives, it's very clean and that we don't have to worry about it as much. Again, we also look at it as a way of trying to deter people from breaking in. So again, layered security is another thing that we look at.
33. Information Security Concepts and Technologies Part3
Now management, of course, is just the oversight of activities to make sure that objectives are being met. The term "nonrepudiation"—and by the way, if you haven't noticed, I'm going through these alphabetically rather than by group category. So that's where we're seeing it go back and forth. Repudiation is a part of authentication. It's one thing to say that maybe somebody took my username and password; it wasn't me or somebody impersonating me. Well, "non-repudiation" is being unable to deny involvement. We see that a lot in the public key infrastructure, where we have a trusted third party that can witness the exchange of information, at least as far as authenticating information. We're going to have a lot of discussions on policies. There's a high-level blueprint of management's intent and direction. Residual risk is what we hope is leftover after we've applied countermeasures to reduce risk. And again, the risk there is the chance that a vulnerability can be exploited. Well, as we get into a lot of this, that's going to be part of the risk management that we're going to try to figure out. Number one, we will have a risk assessment. What is the potential for risk? How can we reduce those risks? And the management, in the ongoing practise of doing just those security metrics, is going to do a quantitative and periodic assessment of your security performance. Your sensitivity again is the level of impact from unauthorised disclosure standards. Those are the boundaries of actions and processes as compared to a policy. In fact, you might say the policy is that the high-level overview, the blueprint, and the standards are a way of saying, You know what, these are the actions you must take. And also, by the way, the boundaries, because I don't want you to just kind of make things up ad hoc now that we've gone through a list saying these are the appropriate actions.
34. Technologies Part1
Your strategy that we'll talk about is the path to achieve an objective. And by the way, we're going to be using a lot of these terms throughout the rest of our discussions. Which is why it's important that, to throw another cliche out there, we're all on the same page. And so that's kind of the reason why we're talking about these concepts and giving you these definitions. A threat is an action or event that can have a negative impact. A vulnerability is a weakness that can be exploited. Now, that doesn't necessarily mean it's a weakness in programming code; it can be a weakness. In configuration, it could be a weakness. And people not understanding our policies and getting into social engineering, there's a lot of things—it's just a weakness, something that a threat could basically attack and hopefully exploit. And of course, there's the risk that that could occur. The enterprise architecture is your organising logic for your business processes. A security domain is going to be an area that's bound by different security policies. Windows has that same concept with the creation of several domains within a forest of Active Directory so that I can have different security policies for different domains. And so one of the reasons for the different domains may be those differences. The trust models are security controls and function at different levels of security. All right? So those are a lot of the concepts and technologies that we need to have a good understanding of. And like I said, it's not important that you are an expert in each and every single one of these fields that we talked about, but as a whole, that you understand what they are, what they mean, what those concepts are, and how they interact with each other.
35. Technologies Part2
Now, as a security manager, you need to have knowledge of a variety of different security technologies, so I'm going to quickly list some of those and give you a quick overview of what those technologies do. Now, we hear a lot about firewalls. Now first of all, I'll be the first to tell you that the firewall is easy to get through because it allows traffic. And I know that seems to be fundamentally opposed to what people think about a firewall. But to tell you the truth, I would never go without one because it has to allow traffic. If it doesn't, it's a brick wall. There's no availability; there's no communication. The big thing about a firewall, though, is that it only allows some communication. The rest of it is designed to block out the 95 or 99% of stuff that we don't need inside our network. That's its function. It does a great job. Of course, that also goes back to that concept of layered security because after traffic gets through the firewall, we may do further inspections through processes of intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, or antivirus software. These are programmes or actual devices—network devices that can further—I like to use the term "scrub the traffic as it comes through." Scrubbing means cleaning it up. Intrusion detection and prevention are not so important. You understand the subtle differences between them, but their goal is to look for signs of malware in the information that's being sent. It can be a network device or a software programme loaded on a machine, or both. You're probably all familiar with antivirus software, and what it does for us is help secure communications through encryption. We see terms like "public key infrastructure" as very important in certificate authentication and in the use of encryption. In fact, we use PKI to set up secure socket layer communications or virtual private networks using IP security to encrypt the information. But, once again, encryption, which I just described as a communication process, is critical because we stated that data must be protected both in motion and at rest. Well, we can also utilise the same public key infrastructure and other encryption technologies to encrypt data while it's at rest and stored on hard drives. Another important aspect is the single sign-on in SSO. Now, the big goal of single sign-on is to make life easier for users while still maintaining a high level of security in authentication. The goal is that in your enterprise, you may have several servers and programmes that require different usernames and passwords for the same person that's accessing them. And what happens is that over time, there are so many usernames and passwords that a person has to write them down or store them somewhere so they can figure out or remember what their names and passwords were. If we can come up with a solution that allows them to log in a single time and then have access to all those resources, It improves their ability to have good, strong passwords—ones that might not be so easy to remember, but at least it's just the one—and also makes everything else kind of transparent to the user. Now, that single sign-on kind of goes with the idea of authentication. Authentication, remember, is how we can verify your identity. Now, one of the things we might do is make use of biometrics. In fact, authentication actually has three separate factors. It's more than just your username and password, you know, but it'll also be something you have, like a smart card or a remote access token with data that you'd enter and communicate with. Or it could be the biometrics of something you are. Fingerprints, iris, voice recognition—those types of things And using them together or in combination instead of just one or the other will improve authentication. And again, if that's the only time I have to authenticate single sign-on, it makes life even easier for the user. Now, I already mentioned the VPNs, the virtual private networks; we should have a conceptual idea of what those are, and we're looking at them from the enterprise perspective, in which we're expecting that communications are happening across a public network like the Internet, helping support telecommuters or people who are travelling on the road that need to connect into the corporation. Forensics is basically the science of gathering digital information or digital evidence. We can use forensics to help us detect the signs or track down the criminal element of hackers that have broken in. To determine where something originated, we can use forensics to trace communications paths. We can use forensics to reverse engineer different types of malware to see what that malware was doing, so that once we understand how it was working, we can see how it affected us and if there is any evidence of that attack being elsewhere in our network. And of course, forensics is also the science of gathering information in a way that's acceptable in court. Now, to help facilitate single sign-on, you may consider things like identity and access management. That's where we have programmes that can securely store multiple sets of usernames and passwords that represent a single person. Remember, again, a person may have trouble remembering all those, so they can sign on once and thenthis identity and access management can go out and represent them to all of the other servers that they need to log into. Again, it's keeping them from writing down passwords. And there's a variety of other types of technology that I'm not even mentioning here. And again, it doesn't mean you need to be an expert in each and every one of these fields, but you need to have an understanding of what this technology does for us. Technologies I haven't listed don't mean they're not important; it just means there are so many of them that I've hit the highlights of the concept of understanding what each one does. And we can delegate the responsibility to the experts. So if I'm using Juniper Firewalls or Palo Alto Firewalls, I need to know how to programme them. I need to know conceptually what it does, where its placement is, what my expectations are, and how it works as a countermeasure. And of course, I have people who would be able to work with that particular product.
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