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4. SPCOR Contents - PART 2
Furthermore, we will look at some of the other VPN options, such as E, V, and PN, but we will mostly go over the overview. We don't get into the details of this VPN's configuration, such as Interact and then multicast VPN or Ethernet VPN. So basically, you'll see more in depth on this concept as we progress with another paper—the service product VPN service paper—and probably get into more details in that one. Next thing we have something like traffic engineering sonext thing we also have something like the trafficengineering concepts this is relevant to like MP's trafficengineering like the extensions what we have in theOSP of ISS protocols to support traffic engineering andalso some other options like RSVP protocol, how it'sgoing to help in that and then faster options. Basically, we'll be describing, which means we won't go into great detail about the configuration. As I said, you will be seeing this more in the advanced CCI topics. This paper is also a prerequisite for your CCIE, so they expect you to have some foundational knowledge of the traffic engineering concepts as well, as you may see in some other papers as well. The next thing we have is something like segment routing. Essentially, segment routing is used in conjunction with MPLS and source routing concepts. So it's a kind of mechanism used with an MPLS—basically with the help of NPLs—that is going to provide some kind of unique label to optimise the networks. So we can say this is more like an optimization for your networks, whether it is a routing network or whether it is based on the MPLS networks. Okay, so we'll be seeing something like unifiedMLS options where this unified Mps'is kind ofadditional features to the existing MLS core infrastructureto provide scalability and security and also offerssome kind of simplicity. And also, we have something like MPLS OEM. Again, this is OEM, which is again the same operation as administration and maintenance of your MPLS networks, and this is mainly to monitor, find faults, and keep track of the devices in your MPLS networks. So maintenance is more about updating the configurations; operational is more about maintaining, finding the faults, or keeping track of the devices in the embedded networks. Following that are some quality of service options, such as understanding the different models of quality of service, the differences between these models, and then the boundaries between the service provider and the customer, and then the various MPLS. If you are correlating with MPLS quality of service, then there are different models again in that, and there are also different models with MLS traffic in the quality of service. Again, there are some options. So mostly, if you see the "describe" option, you basically need to understand that it is a more critical topic. You need to get into more detail on those topics. Here again, and apart from understanding this again, there is an IPV-6 flow level. The flow level is actually eleven to IPV 6, with the IPV 6 Header carrying some of the quality of service options that will define the package flow. Then you'll see some quality of service implementations, such as how to classify traffic, how to do marking, what the different condition management or condition awareness mechanisms are, and some policing and shaping options. So these two sections mainly focus on the quality of service, with some implementation thrown in. The next thing is that we also have some sections on security. Now we have a couple of sections on security, like providing the control plane security, protecting the control plane, and protecting your PGP options. So with respect to BGP, we have BGP TTL security options for authenticating the BGP peers and then limiting the prefix suppression options. We also have something like BGPstick, which is a kind of BGP extension for validating BGP updates. And then we have BGP flow that is flow-specific. Probably this is to prevent some kind ofdenial or distributed in the service attacks sowe'll try to go through with them. And additionally, we have LDP security. This is the LDP protocol for enabling labelling inside the MPLS core networks. Apart from that you also see some overviewof AAA concepts and then URP of unicastreverse path forwarding ACL DDoS text DDoS optionsand then implementing some data security options. And also, these are the options relevant to securing your automation options—automation security-related options. So the next thing we'll see is some of the architecture concepts, such as understanding some of the core architectures, such as how the metro Internet works or MLS networks, how the architecture works, and of course the unified MPLS architecture, which is kind of additional features added to the existing MP's to provide more scalability, and also the segment routing concepts, how they work. So far, I've only given you a high-level overview of this MPLS. So these things are already covered in the previous sections. So this is kind of how I described it initially. And also, we'll try to get a better understanding of some of the transport technologies. Connectivity, like transportation technologies, refers to what the service provider will use to connect their own sites or to connect to their customers. So we have different options. We use some optical fibres and optical connections, and we also use some kind of digital subscriber line option, which actually stands for Data over Cable Service Interface Digital Subscribers. This one, this DOCSIS option, DOCSIS actually stands for data, our cable, and service interface specification. That's what it stands for. It's an IT standard for data transfer again. And also, we'll see the different multiplexing options. Again. TDM is something used in time division multiplexing. Apart from that, we also have something like dense. There are other options. like WDM wave division multiplexing and dense wave division multiplexing options. But mostly, we'll look at what multiplexing is and how time division multiplexing separates each customer's signals when they travel over the same wire. And also, we'll try to understand the passive optical network. This is more like a critical concept like P-one passive optical networks. It is a technology used to provide a fibre to the end user, also known as the "last mile." and some of the mobility options. In general, mobility is something relevant to your mobile broadband. Basically, they started with three G and then four G, and now the subscribers require more bandwidth to send more data because most of the users are using some kind of video or social site, and there is more demand for speeding up the networks. So here's a concept: something called a radio access network. That's what Ram stands for. And this is essentially a network that connects your core backbone to the radio networks. So we'll try to figure out an overview hierarchy for that as well. So next, we also have an overview of the virtualization concepts. We'll try to understand the concepts of virtualization. Like in the case of server virtualization, we have something like virtual machines and some containers and their virtual switching concepts. And also, we'll try to get an overview of the NFB network functions. Virtualization—that's what it stands for. It's a kind of architecture that is applied to the service of networks; that's how it's going to apply. And also, we'll see something like VNF. VNF is again responsible for handling the specific network functions running on the VMs. And there is an open stack. Open Stack is an open-source cloud computing platform for all cloud environments. So we'll try to get an overview of these things and how they help the service networks. And then we'll move on to the automation section. Next in the automation and assurance chain So this is the common section, automation assurance. I just separated it out in this automation. Again, we'll try to understand the different APIs. API stands for application programmable interface. These are the different options which can beused in the Cisco devices for network automation. So, API is a set of protocols, or a set of routing protocols, or tools, as we can call them, that are used to build software applications and specify how they should interact with devices. And also, we'll be seeing something called Rest API Representational State Transfer, which is designed for network applications. We'll be seeing how to interpret some basic external scripts on the device with that. And then there is something called "network service orchestration." Now, this NSO refers to some kind of software solution that helps the network operate, configure, and automate multiple elements just as per the requirement. And then there is something called Yang. This actually stands for something like the next generation. Basically, it's a kind of data modelling language for defining data network management protocols like Netcom Fest.com. There are some options anyway; don't worry, I will see what they are. And also, we'll try to see some of the management tools—the automation management tools. Like these are the tools and some areagents List and some are agents full. We'll try to see the difference between the agent-based and agentless tools and some of these options. We'll compare the differences between them. The last thing is something one more section" called assurance. So probably in this section we'll try to understand the SNMP option, SNMP protocol, and versions. And especially for monitoring your network, we'll try to confirm and verify that. And additionally, we'll also talk about "netflow," "netflow," or "IP fix." Netflix is incorporated into the Cisco devices. Basically, it provides the ability to collect some kind of traffic that is coming and going onto the network. So basically, that is done. And IP Fix is a kind of IP flow information expert. That's what it stands for. So it does the same job ofNetflix but kind of standard implementation. We can say the same thing, but Cisco calls it a debt flow. And the most common name is IP Fix. And we'll see some of the assurance technologies, too. This is relevant to some kind of automation. As an example, we have net comp and risk comp. So basically, these are network-confirmed protocols for network management. So basically they are responsible for installing, manipulating, and deleting the configurations on the networking devices with some kind of simple interface. Also, we'll see something like gRPC. That gRPC stands for group remote procedure.
STATIC - DEFAULT ROUTING
1. Routing- Introduction
Okay, now in this section we'll start with some concepts of routing. So routing is the process of forwarding a packet from one network to another network.As you can see, I have a 182-1681 dot network, and I want to ensure that this end-to-end shared one dot network communicates with the two dawn networks. To make that possible, we set up a LAN connection, connected all of the computers in the LAN, and then got a van connection after some troubleshooting. But still, even if you provide the connectivity in the van, the router will not follow the packet from one dot to another two dots because there is one more thing we need to configure, something called routing. So we need to ensure that we configure the routing on this router's configuration in order to forward the packet from one network to another network.So let me try. Okay, so routing is the process of sending a packet from one network to another network.So if I want one to communicate with twoone, we need to configure something or something. So routing is a process of following the packet from one network to another, or we can say that it's a process of establishing communication between two or more different networks. It can be in the same location or in different locations. If you want to communicate with two or more different networks, we must do routing. So routing is mandatory. What is going to do? It's going to forward a packet, choosing the best path from the routing table; the routing table will see. In short, let's take an example from this network: one network goes to a two-dot network. We've got two possible routes. One route is a direct route; another is via this route. Now the router is going to select the best route, any one of these, and it's going to forward the package. So we'll see more in detail on this. If you want to communicate between the two different networks, you must configure the routing. And there are three different types of routines we can configure. Either we can configure static routing, default routing, or dynamic routing. Now, most commonly, we use dynamic routing, which is most commonly used, but the basic concepts will first be learned with static routing. And then for routing a package to the Internet, we use default routing. We'll see this more in detail in our separate sections, everywhere. Let me give a basic overview of what the difference is between static and dynamic routing. Now static routing is manual routing, if we can say that. And whereas dynamic routing is automatic routingor automatically learning about the networks. Now in cases of static routing done manually, the administrator is going to decide the best route. So let's take an example. I'm going to draw a small diagram here. I got router A, connecting router B, and then routers C, D, and E. Now if I want to go from A to E, assuming that I want to go from A to E, there are two possible routes. Either I can go via A-B-E, which is the one possible route, the first possible route, or I can go via A. There are two possible routes. Now, out of these two routes, which is the best route? That depends upon the type of routing. Okay, so now router A has to forward the packet to router E. Either it can forward via B, or it can forward via C. There are two possible routes. In the case of static routing, the best route is now determined by the administrator. In case of static routing, we call it asa manual routing, which means the route, which routethe router has to follow the packet. It is decided by the administrator. Whereas in cases of dynamic routing, the best route is decided by the router. Admission is not a decision. With the help of some routing protocols. We'll see more on this. The router is going to decide the best route with the help of some protocols. We call them routing protocols, and we call this dynamic routing. Now this concept is more similar to likeyou want to go from location A toX and you got multiple routes to reach. Now you are going to hire a taxi, probably inside your taxi. What you'll do is ask or tell the driver where to go: straight, left, right, and the path. It is something decided by the administrator; you are sitting inside the taxi and deciding the best route. Or you can leave it to the driver, and he knows most of all the routes, and he's going to do his own calculations, and he will take you from whatever the possible route is—the nearest possible route—and then he will take you to the destination. Now there are two ways: either you can decide the route or you can leave it to the driver to take you to the destination. Now which one is better? Practically, in the production networks we use, dynamic routing is the one that is most commonly used. There are many reasons—in fact, we can say there are many advantages to that. For more on this, we'll get into more detail when we come back to dynamic routing. But this is one of the major differences between static and dynamic routing. Static routing administrators will decide the best route, whereas in the case of dynamic routing, the router automatically designs the best route and just follows the packet. So administrators just do some basic configuration and leave it to the router, and the router will take care of all the power. So this is one of the major differences between these two. So default routing is generally used for Internet connections. We'll see this more in detail when we come back to the default routing. So I cannot specifically explain it in one or two lines, but static routing is manually configured, and dynamic routing is configured automatically, and the router is going to select the best route.
2. Static Routing
Okay? Now in this section, we are going to start with the static routing before we go back to the other types of routines. If you remember, in the previous session we discussed that there are three types of routines: static routing, default routing, and routing. So the first kind of routing that you are going to learn here will be static. Now, static routing is manually configured by the administrator. Remember that we used one diagram with two possible routes from A to E. So the route will be decided by the administrator. Administrators will decide the best route. If I say go yr B always the packet will go via B. If I say, "Go YRC," it always goes by "A C." Do not reveal both roots. You have to choose one route. So assume that I'm using Go via this route. Okay? So administrators manually configured the route. That is the first requirement for the destination network ID. which means, as an administrator, you must know what network you're using in the lab. So what is the network? Let's say there is a network called $50 Network. You must know the destination network ID. So you must know the destination network ID. You must know the destination to submit a mask. Okay, so you must know what the destination network ID is and, to reach that destination network, how many possible routes are there. And out of these two routes, which is the best route? And that best route has tobe decided by the route has tobe decidSo that means the administrator must have a clear idea of how you are connected. And administrator must have the information of each andevery possible route so that he can decide toreach this nation which is the best route. The good thing about the static route is security. Why? because it is something given by the administrator and it will happen fast. Because the router does not need to calculate the best route. The best route is something precalculated by the administrator. But there are major disadvantages to static routing. It is mostly applicable to small organizations. Now why? Because, for example, on router A, you must specify how to get to router B. You need to tell me how to go to C. How to go to D. How to go to E Similarly. You need to go to Router B. You need to tell me how to go to A. How to go to C How to go to D. and how to go to E. Then you must tell E from the router. You need to know how to go to A. How to go to C How to go to D. and how to get to A. On a router like that, on each and every router, you need to configure the route for each and every destination. In a similar way, you need to configure the route for each and every destination. So the more bigger the size of the network, the morenumber of manual static route commands we need to add. That is something not scalable. So if you have five to ten routers and five to ten branches starting routing, maybe you can go ahead and configure that. But it is really not applicable for big networks. and that is one of the major disadvantages. You're applicable to the smaller networks. And everything has to be configured manually by the administrator. So manually, we need to add the route from A to B, A to C, A to D, and A to E. Like that. On each and every router, we must configure the route for each and every destination. And one more disadvantage is that network changes affect the complete network. Network changes means let's say I decided that from router Ato router E, I need to go via this route. This is the route that I want to use. But suddenly, due to some reason, this router B is down, or maybe the link is down. There are some problems. So the route that is given by the administrator router tries to follow the packet on their particular route, but it will get dropped because there is a problem. So this means it will totally affect the communication between the router A and the router E. Because the route, which was given by the administrator, is down, In this scenario, manually, the administrator has to change the route, and there are some manual changes. And what if any new network is added? A new router is added. This new router information must be entered into each router. And also on this router, you have to add the information for each and every other nerve. So if any new network is added or any specific link goes down, it's going to be very difficult for the administrator to manually add the route. And even if the route is given, if that goes down, then manually changing it's not an easy job. So that makes static routing not much applicableor not much used in the production networks. We prefer to go with dynamic routing where most of the process is automatic. We will get into that more in detail. But these are the major disadvantages that make static routing less applicable in production networks. So, more on the administrator gap. I'll be getting into that more in detail. I have a separate class dedicated to discussing admission distance. I'll discuss that with examples. But this is what static routing will do here. And to configure static routing, we need to go to configuration mode. We must be in configuration mode when you define the registration network, ID installation, submitmass, and next top IP address. So we'll see more on this, like how to configure it with a basic example, in our next section.
3. Static Routing – LAB
Okay, now in this section we'll see how to configure the static routing. So, if you recall from previous topics, what we have seen is some static routing. Static routing is something manually configured by the administrator, and you must know the destination network ID. Let's see how to configure the static routing. To configure static routing, we need to write a command. We need to go to the configuration mode, and then we need to say IP route, destination networkID, and then we write the destination submit mask and then the next top IP address. So the complete command has to be given in a single line. Let's take an example. I got some instructions on how to configure the static route on two routers here. So whenever you're writing the static route, the first thing we need to figure out is how many total networks we have here. So if I take this diagram here, this is the diagram with which I'm going to implement the static routing. So I have two routers, router one and router two, and I have a network in the LAN called 192 one six one network, and I'm using one six two network on router two. Then, on routers one through two, I'm running a ten-door network. So I'm using 10 on one side and 10 on the other side. Now I want to make sure that this router on one LAN can communicate with the router on another LAN. So I've got my topology ready here. If you see, I got my basic configurations exactly thesame way as I had done in the previous classes. If you recall, if I just show IPinterface briefly, all of the interfaces are already preconfigured with the exact IP addresses shown in the perpendicular diagram, and all of the interfaces are operational. This is the fundamental requirement before proceeding. So ensure that you have the correct IP addresses assigned on the interfaces, and the interface status has to be up and running. So let's go ahead and verify on the router two command line. If I go and use "show IP interface brief," you can see it on the router too. Also, I have the interfaces assigned, and the interface statuses are up and out. Now, this is the basic prerequisite. Make sure that all the interfaces are up instead, and also that they have the IP listing actually configured. As for the rules, Okay, so the next step is for me to go check on the PCs; let's go to one of the PCs here, and we've seen how to assign the IP address on the PCs. I'm going to the command line of one of the PCs, which is 192-1681 one.And to verify the IP address, I can use a command called Ipconfig. It's going to display the IP address and the gateway. So in my scenario, this is a gateway, and I'm trying to pin it to the devices within the same network that are one and two. So I'm able to communicate with one dot two here, and then I'm going to communicate with 1100, which is the gateway address, and if I try to communicate with 192-1682, which is on a different network, now I'm able to see the reply, but the reply is coming from the router, which I can see here I'm getting a reply here, but the reply is coming from 180 to 161 100, which means whenever I'm sending a packet from one eight to 1611 and the destination address is 182 one, The first thing the PC will see is whether they belong to the same network or not. This one is on a different network. So it's going to send a packetto the gateway that is the router. And what router is going to do isrouter is going to verify the routing table. So even we can verify the routing table by using the "Show IP route" command. Let's go ahead and verify on the router one routingtable if I use Show IP route I can verifythe routing table and by default the router one knowsabout ten network and 180 to 168 two one network. The router one knows about only these two networks, and the router one doesn't have any information about various two-dot networks like the 182/162 network, and by default, the router knows about its own directly connected interfaces. It knows about the ten-dot network connected on a zero-by-zero interface, and the router one doesn't know anything about the two networks, and the router two doesn't know about the 190 to 168-dot network because they are not my own networks. So we need to talk about these networks, either via static routing or dynamic routing. So in my scenario, the first thing towrite a static route we need to justfigure out total how many networks we have. So I got one six-dot network in the LAN, one six-dot network in the router for the second LAN, and then I got a ten-dot network overall. So we have three networks in my diagram, and the router one knows about how many networks the router one knows about: 191 picture one dot network, which is connected on f zero by zero, so connected interface on f zero by zero, and the router one knows about ten networks. It is kind of a zero-by-zero interface here, and the router one doesn't know any information about various 192-162 162 network.That's what we have verified in the routing table. If you go and check on the router, you can see that it has only information about these two networks, which are my own directory container networks. As a result, when you try to ping from PC 161-8161 one, the packet reaches the router, and the router reports that the destination host is unreachable. It simply says, "I don't know where it is, and it's going to send that unreachable message." So what I want is I want to tell the routerthat router One, if any packets come for two door network,so don't drop it, simply send it to Router Two. And to do that, we need to add one command to the router One.So we need to go to Router One. And then we need to get into config mode. and then we have to say IP Route destinationnetwork ID destination network ID in my example, thedestination network ID is 192 162 network. So it's a 182-162 network. and then the destination subnetmask. And I'm using the subnetmask of 24 here. So I'm going to write a destination subnet mask of 255-255-2550. And then we need to write the next top IP address. So the next top IP address means that you must go through router two to reach the 192.168.2.1 network from router one. And we need to write the IP address of the router Two.So "next hop" means the next router. So in my scenario, the next router is Router Two. And the IP address of that router is 10. So we need to write ten. Okay? So once you configure this command, you will see the route. Now you'll see in your routing table, you'llsee one more entry added at static route. It's via ten two.So let's verify this. Now, this is how we need to add a static route on the router. And that too, it has tobe done manually by the administrator. So let's go to Router 1. I need to be in configuration mode, and then I need to say the IP route destination prefix, the destination network ID, which is 192 one sixtwo, and the subnetmask, which is 255-255-2550. and the next offer. So I'm going to say that if a packet is only in the two network, it must be sent to ten two. It simply infers two networks. It must have a wire exterior. Okay, so once we add this command, now let's verify the routing table. Now, on the router One, you'll see one static routeis added on the Router One, which says that toreach the destination, it learned via static route. And to reach that destination, it has to go via 1002. Now, that means Router One knows where 182 168 2 are on the network. Now, this time, when you send the packet from One to Two, if it is destined for One, the PC sends it to the gateway, and the router One sends it to Router Two, and the router Two sends it back to One. But the problem here is that the packet won't come back again because the router Two doesn't know how to reach the One network, right? So which means we need to go toRouter Two and on the Router Two. Also, we need to write a similar kind of static route on the router 2 as well. So let's go to router two again, thesame concept total how many networks we have. So we got on router two, complete router two, and I got three networks: 192.168.1.dot network, two dot network, and ten dot network. So total there are three networks and therouter two knows about how many networks? Router two knows about ten dot network whichis connected on a zero by zero. And the router two knows about 192 one six two networkwhich is also connected on Fzero by zero and the routertwo network 192 one six one network because it is notmy own network or it is not directly connected. So we need to tell you that we need to go to router two. On the router 2, we need to write a command called "IP route destination network ID: 10821682 one network, and the submarine mask is 255-255-2550. And the next stop is to go to router two; we need to go wire 100 zero one. So once we add this line, you'll see a new scenic route added, and to reach The packet will be sent to ten two by one network, router two. So let's go to router two and configure the same. By default, the router knows about only these two networks. So I'll go to router two and enter IP route 18168 on network 255-255-2550. And the next stop is number eleven. So the next top address will always be the next router address. So once I add this line, if I give "show IP route," I can see the router knows about this network also. Now both the routers have information about all three networks that are present in my network. So the router knows about this network by default. And for this network, we have configured a static route. Similarly, on the second router, Router 2 knows about these two networks; we have added a static route for one of them. Now, if everything is okay, then you should see that one network should be able to communicate with two networks. Let's go to 101/6, which shares one computer, and let's verify the IP address on this computer. So I'm on one six one, and I'm trying to send a PIN packet from 1821-611-2192, port 168. Let's try to send a pin message, acall message to that 192, 168, two one. Now I should see the reply coming. It will take some time for the host to be resolved. That is an ARP request. We'll be getting into that more in detail when we start the switching concept. This first one is actually because of the ARP address resolution protocol, where it will resolve the IP to a Mac address. So I'll go into more detail about this in my switching concepts. But as of now, we are going to avoid that. We are not going to discuss that here. And you can see the replies coming. And there is one more command we can use Tracer to verify: 162 one.When you trace, you can see the first packet goes to one eighty two, one six eight, and one hundred. That's the outer one, and then it goes to 1002. That is one out of two before it reaches the destination. That is the 182-1682 one. Now the basic difference between the pings is going to tell whether there is connectivity there or not. So either you'll see the reply message if there is connectivity or you will get unreachable messages if there is an issue. There is an issue with the connectivity. Whereas in Windows, the stress of a command will show you how the package is travelling to the destination and what different hops it will take to get there, So similarly, if you want to verify the communication process from the other PC, one-to-one, anyway, it will work. However, if you want to double-check, try the same thing on two different computers. I'm going to the command prompt of the two-PC IP configuration and I'm trying to communicate with one, and you can see the reply is coming, which means there is connectivity. 11861, one gets a similar kind of result. The packet goes to 2100 and then goes to ten one andcome back again to one one nine two one six one one. You can see the trace of it. That's how it works. So, we use tracer in the Windows operating system. If you're using Linux or the router command line, we use the traceroute command, but it will ultimately do the same thing as the sales rep.
4. Static Routing - LAB 3 Routers
Now in this video, we'll continue with the static routing concept that we discussed in the previous video. So the only difference is that we just added one more router. Okay? So in the previous example, we have seen how to do a static routine with two router office.What if I have one more branch office? So if you remember in the static routingthe more bigger the size of the networknumber of lines you need to configure. So that's one of the major drawbacks. Let's try to see how to configure the static routing if you have more than three routers. Okay, so in my scenario, I'm going to take these three routers, and if you remember, you know how to assign the IP addresses. So the basic prerequisite for this lab hereis I'm assuming that the IP address ispre configured, the basic set up the IPaddresses and the connectivity, everything is done. And then I have also verified the interface items. The interfaces are up and up. Okay? So if you want, you can go and verify. I have already pre-configured those things. On the router one, I go and verify the show IP interface brief. I can see my interfaces are up and running. And I have two interfaces on the router, one in the LAN and one in the van. So let's go to router two. On the router two, also you're going to command line. On the router, you are going to say, Swipe interface brief F 001-8216, 2100, and then ten two and eleven one." And on the router three I'm going to commandline and then I'm going to use Shaw interfacebrief and the show I interface brief. All interfaces are up; all two interfaces are up and running. Now if they are not up, we have seen how to do troubleshooting as well. You have to just go with those steps. So I have pre-configured this IP addressing and also the connectivity, and all the interfaces are up. And my requirement is that I want to ensure that this one network should be able to communicate with 168 other network users and also should be able to communicate with 192 other networks. So that's something I want, but they won't communicate by default because we need to do some routing concepts. So we need to implement some routing. So even if you want, you can go and verify. So if I go to one of the pieces here, 192-16811, and if I just view IP configuration and try to pin T019-21-6821, I'm not able to pin, as you can see, the reply is coming from the router, and the router is saying it doesn't know how to reach two networks. So similarly the same thing, I'm trying todo the same thing for three network. Also if you're not saying because the router onedo not have any information about 182 one sixtwo network and 182, one six three network. Now, our job is to configure the routing. In my scenario, I'm going to use static routing. So let's start with the router one first. So, on the router one, the first thing we need to do is count how many networks we have here. So in my scenario, I have three line interfaces, one, two, and three, and then two van interfaces, two bar interfaces, so there are five networks, 168 one network, 162 network, and then 163 dot network in the lambda, then some tendon network, and then an eleven dot network. As a result, tend to network and eleven dot network are on-line interfaces. So ten and eleven are here, and one, two, and three dots network on the line interfaces. So by default, the router knows about how many networks; the router knows about this network, which is connecting on f zero by zero because it is directly connected; and the router also knows about this network, which is the tenth network; it is also connected on s zero by zero, right? As a result, the router is unaware of the 162 network, 3 dot network, and 11 network. So why? Because this two door network is not directlyconnected and this is also not directly connectedand this is also not directly connected. So we need to tell the router that in order to reach those networks, it must use the next-top-something, or whatever static route is configured. So we need to enter configuration mode and specify the IP route destination network ID as 18168 2 network. To reach two network we are going to say 255-255-2550and the next stop address will be to reach thisnetwork, the next stop will be 100 two. So that is we have to go via router two andthe next stop address is 192 is the next stop. So similar way, once you write this entry, you'll see thisnetwork as static route learn and to reach this network wehad to go yr ten two, that's the next option. But what if this user in theland want to communicate with three network? Now, once we configure this statement here, the 1812 network, to reach this network, we have to go via ten two.But the problem is, what if the user on the one-dot network wanted to communicate with the 121-six network? So that means we need to write one more static route for three networks. We need to say "IP route" when you take the router one, that router one.If any package is coming for 192, 168, and three networks, that is three networks, and the seven mask is 255, 255-255, and then to reach this next house so from therouter one to reach 192-1683 network, what's the next term? ten and two, or 110 and two So it will be always ten two. So if you want to go to the three-door network, Or if you want to go to the Door Network, you have to go via the next order. When you say "next," "hop" means it's always the next order. Okay, so we cannot go directly to Router Three. There is no direct route. We need to go via Router Two only. So the Router Two will be the next stop. So here also, the next top order will be ten. So which means if I have any packet that send forthree networks, the Router One sends Router Two, and the RouterTwo will take care of power to Router Three. That's the Router 2 job. So once we add this line, the Router One knows about this network, and it also goes via ten two.Now, there is one more static routewe need to add for Eleven network. Even though it is a male interface, it is optional but recommended. So I'm going to say under Router One that if anypackage is sent for Eleven network, the submit mask of 255-25-5250,the next stop is ten from the Router One. To reach this lemon network, you have to go via Ten Two, the next stop. Now, if you see the difference between the staticrouting, what we did in the previous lab andthis lab, when you have more number of routers,or the more number of networks you add, themore number of static route we need to add. So that's one of the major drawbacks of static routing. As the size of the network increases, we need toincrease the number of commands also we need to configurethe more number of commands we need to configure also. Okay, so once we configure this on the Router One, againthe same thing we do on the Router Two also. So let's do the same thing on the Router Two. I'm going to take this diagram. Here the same diagram. So let's do it on the router too. So on the Router Two, alsototal how many networks we have? As a result, I received a total. There are five networks. 192 168, one-door, two-door, and three-dot networks in the lance, and ten-dot and eleven-dot networks on a binary basis. And the router knows about the 10-dot network; it is directly guided on S-0 by 0. And Router Two knows about an $11 network. It is correctly gained by one on S zero. Router 2 is also aware of the 192 168 2-dot network. It is also guided directly on 0 by 0. So on the Router Two, there are three direct interfaces, and the Router Two doesn't know about the dot network because it is not directed. So we need to write the static route for one network, and we also need to write the static route for 192, 168, and three networks. So, to write the same commands, go to Router Two and enter the IP route destination network ID 192.168.1.1 and the submit mask 255.255.2550. And the IP address of the next hop is 100 0 1. So, if you want to get from the autoroute to this network, you must take Route 101. That's the next option. Now that we've added this line, Router One is aware of this network via static routing via 100 zero one. So similarly, the same thing we need to do on Router 2 for another network, that is, for the three-dot network, So, what is the next stop to get into the 1683 network from Router 2? 255-255-2550. and the next stop is Ten. So, once we have these statements, we can go from the router to the 19168-3 network, and you will notice that this route is also learned via static routing, as we did on Router Three. So for Router 3, I'm going to configure that directly. So let's go ahead and do the same thing on the Router Three. but I'll directly get into the command line. Okay, so let's start with Router One. Whatever commands we discussed, let's begin with Router One. If I use the Shaw IV route, I can see router two. Router One has only two interfaces, which are directly connected. So I'm going to configure the static route for the remaining three networks. So the next stop for network 2 (255-25-5250) for next stop Ten and network 182-1683 is 100 zero two. Now for all the routes that are common to NextStop, the next stop defines the direction. And that next top address should be correct. If you give the wrong next stop, it defines the wrong direction, so it may not work. So ensure that you are giving the right next-top address. Now, once I add these three commands, whateverwe discussed now you'll see the three staticroutes has been added on the router One. So let's do the same thing on the Router Two. On the Router Two, if I go and checkon the Router Two, router Two is having threenetworks which are dialling at it ten dot network,eleven dot network, and 190 to 162 network. And then we need to add the starting route for the remaining two networks. That is, one network, 190 to 161 networks, and the next ten ones. So, in a similar way to writing a static load for the 18216-3 network, the next top address is 110 zero two. So exactly the same thing from the Router Two. To reach One Network, the next stop is Ten One. And from the Router Two to reach threedot network, the next stop is 10110 two. Now, once we add this line now the Router Twoalso have an information of each and every network. So let's finally do the Router Three. I got two diet interfaces on Router Three again, which you can see here. Three observations regarding the 11 dot network and the 192.163.254 network Now, this is actually a three-dot network. So let's go to router three and then confirm the starting dot for the remaining payment. So I'm going to say 19216, which is two networks: 255-255-2550. What's the next stop? The next stop address from the router three to reach 19216 threenetwork is 110 001. In a similar way that the router 3 reaches one network, the next stop address is the same: 110 one.Let's write that down also. So to reach the 18161 network, the next stop is 110 zero one. Even to reach a 10-dot network, that is a van interface. The next top address is a Show IP route. I can see the static route on router three, which was manually configured by the administrator here. Now, once we configure all the staticroutes, now I should see the communicationshould happen between all these computers. Let's go and verify from one one tryingto generate a ping messages to two oneand two two and also to three one. So you're able to see the reply. It confirms that on the router, the routing is perfect. So let's go to the router once and try to generate a ping 181-6231. So the last time I attempted toping, it did not ping. Now I should see the reply message. I can see the reply is coming three oneand if I try to ping to two onealso you should see the replies coming. You can also try tracing commandstrace to one nine two one six three one if you want. The trace also clearly shows that the packet first goes to 18161 100, then to 10 2 and then to 110 2 before reaching 182-1683 1. So the same thing you can see here1110 211 two and then 1013 three one. So similar way, the more number of networksyou are adding here, the more number ofstatic routes we need to add. That's one of the major disadvantages of static routing. If you remember, the more routers you add or the more branches you have, the more static loads we need to add. Because you have to manually write the route for each and every destination. And administrators should have a clear idea of how they are connected. What is the next top-level information and is it compulsory? You need to know the destination network ID. That's what we have discussed in our basic theory classes of static routing. So probably in my next section we will go into more detail on understanding how the routing process is going to work. Whatever the routing you are going to use, whether it is static or dynamic
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