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HIPAA was created to regulate how healthcare data is secured to protect personal health information. Any healthcare organisation that handles medical information should be HIPAA compliant. The first thing you should know about HIPAA is the Privacy Rule. If you go to HHS Gov. HIPAA, you can review the HIPAA documentation. From the main page, you can find the Privacy Rule. The purpose of the HIPAA Privacy Rule is to address the use and disclosure of individual health information. A major goal of the Privacy Rule is to assure that individuals' health information is properly protected while allowing the flow of health information needed to provide and promote high-quality health care and to protect the public's health and well being.The next HIPAA rule you should understand is the security rule. The Security Rule establishes a national set of security standards for protecting certain health information that is held or transferred in electronic form. The last type of fundamental you should know are the safeguards that are used to check if an organisation is compliant. HIPAA safeguards are broken up into three categories: administrative, physical, and technical. Both of these links are available as resources in this lecture. So if you would like to review some more HIPAA documentation, you can access it from there.
The SOX Act was created to enforce regulations within publicly held companies, qualifying international organizations, and financial service companies. The three socks sections that you should be concerned about for the exam are sections 3 and 4, as well as 404 and 409. Section 3.2 talks about corporate responsibility for financial reports, Section 404 is for management assessment of internal controls, and Section 409 is for real-time issuer disclosures. If an organisation needs to be stock compliance, then they need to make sure that they have the following audit requirements: Specifically, Socks sections 302, 40, and 409 must be monitored, logged, and audited. So we have internal controls, network activity, database activity, login activities such as success and failures, account activity, user activity, and information access. Both of these links are available in the resources for this lecture. So if you would like to review more stock information, you can do so from there.
1. Data Normalization
In this section, we are going to focus on learning more about data and event analysis. To effectively analyse data, it needs to be normalized. Normalization is the process of reorganising data so that it can be viewed in one form. This eliminates redundant data and minimises the chance that an attacker can evade detection data. Normalization can be categorised into three types: one NF, two NF, and three Cisco's. Firepower security devices use normalisation preprocessors to normalise traffic after packet decoding from the Firepower Management Center. If you go to Policies, Access, Control, and Intrusion, you can edit your IPS Policy, which includes preprocessors for normalization. So here is my IPS policy. I'll click the pencil icon to edit it. You can get to the IPS preprocessor rules by going under Policy Information and selecting Rules and Pre Processors.So, as you can see in the preprocessor section, there's a list of configuration options for popular services such as DNS, FTP, and HTTP.
2. Interpret Common Data Values
With so many data types to analyze, it is important to have a way to interpret information in a universal format. SIM systems meet this need with the ability to collect event data in multiple forms. Just to give you an idea of what type of event correlation can be done on a SIM, we're going to take a look at a Solar WindSim server. So here's just the Solar Winds demoserver that you can log into. And under the Monitor tab with the Security option, you can see a list of security events. So I'll click on that. If you look here in the tool alias column, you can see the different sources of these events. So we have Windows log-on events, firewall-denied connections, as well as viruses that have been detected from the Microtrends Office scan tool. So as you can see, we have all these different tools feeding in information, and we can view everything from a central management point within the same system. To help the security community speak a common language when referencing security data, Varies was created. Varys is a set of metrics designed to provide a common language for describing security incidents in a structured and reputable manner. If you would like to read Varys more, I have the link available in the resources for this lecture.
A five-tuple refers to a set of five different values that are used to analyse security events. It includes a source IP address and port number, a destination IP address and port number, and the protocol used in this example. The top host had an IP address of 100.111. Use source port 65,001 of the TCP protocol as its transport, with the destination IP address of 100112 and a destination port of 445. Let's take a look at a couple of examples of how you could find your FiveTuple information for connections between hosts. So here I am in Wireshark, and let's say that I was investigating an issue with an endpoint. If I wanted to correlate five sets of information, I could easily do so from here. So let's say I wanted to find out the information for this connection from my PC to this destination address. I could just double click on that connection. I can see the source and destination IP addresses. I can see the transport protocol with TCP, as well as the source port number and destination port number. A firewall log is another good place to learn how to find Five-Tuple information. Here I am in the lab with a Cisco Firewall. There are a few different ways you can find your Five-Tupel information. What I like to do is run the command show connection detail, and here you have a nice summary of all your connections, as well as your IP address information, transport protocol, and port numbers. So if I wanted to drill down into a suspicious connection, let's say regarding this IP address, I could just filter to that destination to collect five Tupple details.
4. Retrospective Analysis
Retrospective events take place when there is a change in a prior event. With firepower, if the system learns that a file's malware disposition has changed, These are called retrospective malware events. A file disposition is the status of a file after it has been analysed by Cisco's cloud database. So a file's disposition could be unknown initially, but later on, as the amp cloud learns more about the file, it could determine that it was actually a bad file and trigger a retrospective event that would consider the file malicious and block any future transfers for that file. Now, I'll hop into a Firepower Management Center to show you where you can look at retrospective file events. So here I am in the firepower management center. If you go to analysis files and network file trajectory, it shows you files that have the disposition of malware. So I'll just click on one of these files. So, for a retrospective event, the trajectory would show that a file entered the network and was transferred between hosts, and at the beginning of the file's trajectory history, the file would actually show as unknown or clean. And if the am clock determined that the file was malicious after the file was actually on the network, it would send a retrospective event, which will be shown by the symbol in the trajectory, letting you know that the file initially wasn't considered to be malicious but then was due to further analysis.
5. Threat Analysis
Tying different event data together to identify compromised hosts and threat actors can be challenging. With next-generation devices like Firepower, you can easily map data together like IP addresses, DNS requests, and HTTP URLs. Now let's hop in the lab and we'll take a look at how you could use Firepower event information to identify compromised hosts and threat actors on your network by simulating a malicious connection. For this example, I'm going to use a mail whereabouts link to trigger a blocked connection on the network. I like to use the WICAR.ORG test site, which I will provide the link for in the resources for this lecture. It just has a collection of some downloadable payloads that you can use to test your mail to make sure that your mail defences are working properly. So if I click on this test virus here, of course I get blocked since my Firepower device is doing what it's supposed to be doing. And you can see here that I didn't even get a chance to connect to the HTTP site to download the test file because Firepower blocked the actual DNS request to resolve the IP address of this website where I would download the virus. So I'm actually going to disable my DNS locks so that we see all the connection information to help us analyse the connection. So to disable these security intelligence DNS blocks, I can go to Policies, Access Control, and then DNS, and then I'll just disable these DNS blacklist rules just as a temporary thing for this example. Save it. And now I'll deploy the new policy to my Firepower sensor in the lab, and then I'll start the video back up once that's done deploying. And then we should be able to resolve the test mailer site so that we get a full picture of the connections traversing the Firepower devices. Okay, now that the policy has successfully been pushed to my Firepower device, I should be able to resolve the Web page that is going to be used to download this test payload. Here, let me try it again. Okay, so it was still blocked, but let's see if I am at least able to resolve it. There you go. So DNS is allowing the connection through, but my URLfiltering blacklist is blocking the connection. So that's good. My device is doing what it's supposed to be doing. Let's go over connections and events. And then I edited my search to filter on anything destined for the IP address that I resolved for Malware Wricar.org.And as you can see here, I see my host IP address as the potentially compromised host destined to the threat actor's IP address as the responder IP, the website where the mail was attempted to be downloaded from at malwarewar.org, and then the file name. So right here in this one line, I have the compromise host, the threat actor, and the HTTP data so that I know what site was trying to be accessed from the compromised host.
6. Correlation Rules
The Firepower Management Council can be configured with correlation policies that can send alerts and even take action if specific events that you define are triggered. To help show you how you can build correlation rules to distinguish significant alerts, I'm going to get into the lab at Firepower Management Center to build a correlation rule. All right, so to start off with our correlation policies, we're going to want to go to policies and then correlation. Okay? So before I create a correlation policy, first I want to make a rule that will be used to match on an event. So I'll go to the Rule Management tab and then create a rule. So for this example, I'm going to create a correlation if there are any malware events. So I'll call this rule "Malware Events." So here we have intrusion events, which you can match on discovery. So you could actually trigger an event if Firepower noticed that there was a new subnet introduced to the Firepower Topology user host connection. But I'm going to select a malware event that occurs, and then I'm going to select a network-based mail rate detection because I have firepower appliances within the lab network, but I don't have the amplified base solution within the lab. So I'm just going to match on network-based mailbox detection. And then, if you want it to be more specific, if you hit this drop-down, you could choose things like which application protocol you wanted to match on file type IP addressing. I'm going to choose the disposition, which is the status of the file: is it a clean file, unknown, or malware? And then malware is the default option. So I just want to know if there's any network-based mail where events occur in my network, and I want to be notified, so I'll hit save. So we have our rule, which is the event we're matching on, and then ultimately when we create our policy, that's going to say if this event occurs, we're going to apply this action. So we haven't created our action yet, so let's go ahead and do that. We'll go to actions and then alerts. As you can see here, I already have a Syslog alert defined. But for this example, we'll create an SNMP alert with the SMMPmyTrapServer IP address and then my SNMP information. I'm using SNMP version three. That's kind of lame that you can only select "des." I would think that on a secure device like this you could pick something, but it's only SN and P, so no big deal. Hit save. All right, now that we have our alert created, as you can see here, it shows that it's not in use but it is enabled. So once we create our policy and tie our rule and alert together, it'll show as in use. So we'll go back to policies and correlation, and we'll create a new correlation policy. Alright, so I'll call this malware policy, and then we have to add our rule to it. So we'll choose our Malware Events rule and click Add. So now that this policy knows what to match, we have to give it a response. So we'll go here to the responses edit button, and then we'll assign a response to it. So I'll select my SNP alert I created, push it up, and hit update. All right, so that's it. Now we have our mail, where policy is defined in firepower, so that we can be alerted if there are any significant security malware events.
1. Cyber Kill Chain Model
The cyber kill chain model is basically the flow of the security event phases. At the top of the kill chain is the reconnaissance phase. It is used to collect as much information as possible from the target systems. Common things to discover are operating systems, network information, and user data like email addresses. The weaponization phase is used to create deliverable payloads based on the information learned from the reconnaissance attack. For example, if an attacker knew that the target had public-facing Windows web servers, then they would create a malicious payload that could exploit Windows Web-based vulnerabilities. Once an attacker has weaponized a payload, they need to find a way to deliver it. This could be done with a USB flashdrive, a web page, or an email. Phishing attacks are probably the easiest form of delivery. Once the malicious payload is delivered, then the vulnerabilities that were identified during the weaponization phase can be exploited to execute code on the victim's system. The most difficult part of the killchain is the actual installation of malware. Since most machines have antivirus and antimalware software, known malware should be blocked in most cases. But with zero-day attacks that are ahead of security software updates, malware can still find a way to be installed. Depending on the type of malware that is installed, the kill chain may stop at the installation phase. However, if an attacker wants to do more than just install malware to cause harm to a system, then CNC command and control communication can be established. CNC programmes can be used to connect to an attacker server so that they can remotely send commands to the compromised host. Once they have remote control, they have hands-on keyboard access, making an action objective possible. Cisco actually has a security portfolio that offers solutions to provide protection across the kill chain. If you scroll through this webpage, you'll see that Cisco has provided security solutions to protect against each kill chain phase. For example, such devices include stealth watches, email and web security devices, as well as AMP anti-malware protection. As far as the exam is concerned, I would focus on simply memorising each phase in the kill chain.
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