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Google Compute Engine for Associate Cloud Engineer
4. Step 04 - Installing HTTP Webserver on Google Compute Engine Virtual Machine
In the previous step, we launched our virtual machine and were able to run a few commands on it. Let's see how to set up an HTTP server on our Compute Engine virtual machine. I would want to install some software on the specific machine. So before I do anything, I need to actually become a root user. So I would say sudo space su; this is the command to actually become a root user. And once I do that, what I would want to do is update all the packages that are present in here. App is a package manager that comes standard with Debian. And I can do app updates. I can do an app update to pull in all the latest changes. So let's do an app space update. Now, once I update the package index, what I would like to do is install Apache. Apache is the HTTP server that we would want to run on the virtual machine. The way we can do that is by saying "App install Apache 2." So Apache Two is the name of the package. So we want to install Apache Two Packets using the package manager apt. Let's press Enter. So you can see that it's providing us with a little bit of information about the Apache package. It is showing what would be installed, how much memory would be needed, and it's asking us, "Do you want to continue?" and I would say yes. You can see that it's downloading the package, and it's installing it in here. So Apache Two would be installed in a little while. It took about a minute to install the Apache service, and at the end of it, the Apache service is now installed. Now I can go back to the virtual machine instance. One of the interesting things to know is that if you see a panel come up like this, you can click the Hide Info panel. So show and hide. So when you select a specific virtual machine, you can click the Show Info panel. It would show information about that specific virtual machine. And if you want to hide the Infopanel, you can actually hide it as well. that might be useful as you play with the console a lot more. We have launched an Apache server, and we want to look at the page behind that. The way we can do that is by clicking the external IP. So you can go in here and click the link to the external IP, and you should see the home page of Apache on Debian. Come up over here. You'll see a lot of information about the configuration of Apache, and you'll see that the default Debian document route is this specific folder. Now we want to customise this page. So instead of this page, we want our own page to come in here. How can we do that? That's where we would want to customise something present in this specific directory. So I'll copy this directly from here. So slashwirew I'll say "lsswirewwhml make sure that you don't havea dot or anything in there and you can press Enterand you can see that there is an index dot HTMLfile which is present in here and that's the index dotHTML where we want to put our content in echo. Let's say hello. And I would put a double quote to end this echo of "Hello world." So this would print "Hello World" in here. Now what I would want to do is actually send this out to a file so I can use a pipe character so it's nothing but the greater-than symbol. So you can pipe the output into this file. So HTML indexes HTML, so this is where we would want to write "Hello World" into, and let's press Enter. Now let's go in here and refresh the page. Cool. Now I see Hello World in here, so that's cool. So we are able to create a simple Apache server serving a simple "hello, world" page. Now let's try and make this a little bit more complex. Let's say I would want to actually have my host name in here. Instead of just saying "hello world," I would want to actually add in a host name to say this is the host name where this response is coming from. How can I do that? Let's start with echo. Let's try and print that out. So the way we can print the hostname is by saying the dollar host name within parentheses. As a result, dollar within parentheses hostname So this would actually print the host name. The host name that we gave earlier to this particular virtual machine is my first VM, and similar to that, you can actually do an echo hostname, and this would give you the IP address. So what I would want to do is add this information to my index dot HTML.So let's start with actually printing echohello world from dollar within parentheses hostname and let's press Enter. Let's see what would happen. Yeah, this is printing Hello World from my first VM. That looks cool. I'll say hello from this specific host name, and I'll also want to print the IP address, so I'll say "dollar" within parentheses and put hostname. This is printing "Hello World" from my first VM and the IP address. If you go in over here, you'll see that this is the internal IP address. So 10: 1280: 2 is the internal IP address. That is what is being printed here. So that looks cool. So what I would want to do is to actually take this message and send it to the index HTML. So I'll simply take the same thing -- echo "Hello, world!" -- from this specific thing and pipe it wherever you want to pipe it to this specific file. So let's paste that in and see if we are able to see it in here. Cool. You can see Hello World from my first VM, at 1280 bytes. In this step, we install Apache on our virtual machine. You saw that it was very easy to do all that we needed to do: SSH into it, install the software that we needed, and easily customise the page that we want to render from our Apache web server. There are a lot of other things that we would want to learn about virtual machines, and this example would be a great starting point to learn all of them. I'm sure you're having a lot of fun, and I'll see you in the hall.
5. Step 05 - Understanding Internal and External IP Addresses
Welcome back. In the last step, we saw a couple of IP addresses assigned to a virtual machine. We saw internal and external IP addresses that are assigned to this virtual machine. Let's understand a little bit more about internal IP and external IP. in this specific step. External IP addresses can be accessed via the Internet. We were able to call this specific external IP from outside, right? I am on the Internet, and I'm reaching out to a specific virtual machine that is installed inside the Google Cloud Platform. So this is Internet addressable.Internal IP addresses are internal to a corporate network. In a specific example, the virtual machine is installed inside the GCP network, and the internal IP address can only be used inside the Google Cloud Network. So you won't be able to use this one, dot 128, dot zero, dot two, and send a request to it. That is not allowed. Whenever we talk about external IP addresses, you cannot have two resources with the same IP address. The external IP is published over the Internet, and therefore you cannot have two resources with the same public IP. However, two different corporate networks can have resources with the same internal IP address. Because the internal IP addresses are not available on the Internet, they are just internal to some networks. Similar internal IP addresses can be used on two different networks. Whenever you create a VM instance, by default it is assigned at least one internal IP address. Whenever you are creating a VM instance, you can choose if you want to create an external IP address for it. An important thing to remember is that whenever you stop a VM instance, the external IP address is lost. Let's now see the internal and external IPS in play. Let's go over to our virtual machine that we created earlier. And what I would do is actually try to stop this. So let's go ahead and say stop, and I'll say stop on the pop-up, which comes up as well. Before we stop, this virtual machine had an internal IP and an external IP. Let's see what would happen when it stopped. You can also note down the external IP. Right now it's 341-23-6112. You might have a different external IP, but make sure that you note it down. Let's wait for the VM to be stopped. Let's try to refresh et's wait It took a few moments, about a minute, and then my virtual machine was shutdown. And when the virtual machine is stopped, you can see that it is still assigned an internal IP. However, there is no external IP that is assigned to it. Now what I would do is go in here and Start or resume," and I'll say "Start over here as well." Let's see what would " and I'll sI can see that the start of the virtual machine was successful, and it has been assigned a different external IP. Earlier, this was the external IP I made use of: 34, 123, 6, and 112. And if I refresh that right now, you'll see that I get a page not found or some other error. because the external IP has now changed. You can see that my SSH connection is also not working. It reports that the connection via cloud-identity aware proxy failed. So I can actually go ahead and close the SSH one as well. because the external IP has changed. The earlier external IP is no longer useful. Now, what I would do is actually SSH again. So you can see that the SSH is opening up as a pop-up window right now. And over here I want to execute the command to start the Apache server earlier. We stopped and restarted the instance. Before doing that, let's do pseudo-su to become the root. And after that, I can execute a command service on Apache 2. That's the service that we installed earlier, and we can say "Start." So we want to start the Apache Two service. And once this service is up and running, I can go in and use the external IP. And you can see from my first VM ten that it's saying hello world. In this step, we understood the concept of internal and external IP addresses. External IP addresses are addressable over the Internet. Our internal IP addresses belong only to a specific corporate network. You cannot use them on the Internet. We also saw that when we stopped and started a VM instance, the internal IP address remained the same. However, the external IP address is changed when we restart a VM instance. The fact that an external IP address changes and I have to restart a virtual machine can be problematic. How do we fix that? Let's see that in the next step.
6. Step 06 - Playing with a Static IP Addresses
In the last step, we talked about external IP addresses, and we saw the fact that an external IP address changes when I stop and start a virtual machine. How do I get a constant external IP address? For a VM instance, one of the easiest ways to do that is to assign a static IP address to the VM. A little later, we'll look at a better solution using load balances. But for now, let's actually use a static IP address. Let's see how to use a static IP address. Right now I'll go to our Google platform, and over here you can type in external IP addresses. So we are going into external IP addresses, which is part of something called a VPC (Virtual Private Cloud). And this is where you can see the external IP addresses that are assigned to our virtual machines. So over here, you can see that there is an external IP address that is already created for our specific virtual machine. So whenever you create a virtual machine with an external IP address, you can come over here and see the details of the external IP address that is created. However, what we want is not just an external IP address; what we want is a static external IP address. And how can we reserve that? The way we can reserve that is by asking for a reserve static address. So I go into the system and say Reserve static address. So I've clicked that, and over here, now I can go in and say, When you're creating a static IP address, you can choose the network service tier. So what kind of network performance do you want? There are two levels that are offered. One is premium and standard. The default is Premium. I would go with it. You can also choose what kind of IP address format you want to use. I want to use either an IPaddress four format or a six format. I would go with IP address four. And you can also choose whether you'd want to create a regional static address or a global static address. Over here, we would want to assign the static address to a virtual machine. A virtual machine is a resource that is created in a specific zone. So a regional static address would be sufficient for us. I would go ahead and say reserve. Now, this would actually create a static address. You can also see the type in this area. So by default, whatever external IP address is directly assigned to a VM is Ephemeral. Ephemeral means that it changes. So when you restart the instance, it changes. However, the address that we created just now is static. You can see the static address in here. 341-23-6112. Now, we want to assign this to our virtual machine. How can we do that? If you actually zoom out a little, I mean, the "change" button is well hidden by Google Cloud, so you'd see a button called "Change" in here. So on the static IP address: If you zoom out a little, you should see a button called "Change" in here. And that's the one on which you need to click to change the IP address. and I'll go back to the normal zoom. And over here, I can actually attach it with a VM. I would say my first VM, and I would say, "Okay, so you'd see that a static IP address is now assigned to the VM instance." And when you refresh, you'll see that the ephemeral address is automatically released. So when I assign a static IP address to a VM instance, the earlier IP address that was assigned to it is automatically removed. So if I actually refresh this, this is the earlier IP address that was assigned. This was the external IP address, which was ephemeral. and you can see that this does not work anymore. And now I can actually use the static IP address. So I can take the static IP address and use that. And the amazing thing about the static IP address is if I go back to instances, for example, let's go back, type in "VM instances," and let's go back to our Compute Engine VM instances. And over here, let's say I go in here, and I'll say stop. The stop would take a little while. Let's wait for it to be complete. Let's try refreshing. The stop is still going on. Okay, it took about a minute. Now this top is complete. So even though we stopped the VM instance, the static IP address is still assigned to your VM instance. In the next step, we look at how to get a constant external IP address for a VM instance. The solution was to use a static IP address. We saw how to create a static IP address and how we can assign it to a VM instance. Let's talk a little bit more about static IP addresses in the next step.
7. Step 07 - Understanding Static IP Address in GCP - Google Cloud Platform
Welcome back on the scene. Let's look at a few things that you need to remember about static IP addresses. The important thing that you need to remember about static IP addresses is that you can actually switch them from one VM instance to another within the same project. So if you actually create a new VM instance in here, you can easily switch the static IP address from the current one to the new one. The next important thing to remember is that the static IP remains attached even if we stop the instance. As you can see here, we have stopped the specific instance. Still, the static IP is assigned. It is important to remember that you have been billed for a static IP when you are not using it as well. So you'd be billed for it when you are using it as well as when you are not using it. One surprising thing is that the bill for not using it is much higher than the bill you pay when you use it. So if you have a static IP and you are not making use of it, the recommendation is to immediately release it. So make sure that you explicitly release a static IP when you are not using it. Let's go ahead and do it. Right now, what I would do is go in and delete this specific instance. So I'll go ahead and say, "Delete the VM instance." When I refresh the VM instances, I don't really have a VM instance. If I actually type in external IP addresses and go into a VPC network, you can see that the static address is still available. So this static IP address is not used by anybody right now. And this is the kind of scenario where you would be billed for it. And that's the reason why the best practise when it comes to static IP addresses is to go ahead and release them. So I'll select this and go ahead and say, "Release static IP address." So whenever you're not using a static IP address, the best practise is to go ahead and release it, because you'd be billed for it if you're not using a static IP address. So make sure that you actually explicitly release a static IP when you're not using it. In the shop, we learned a little bit more about the static IP address. I'll see you at the next step. Bye.
8. Step 08 - Simplifying Web Server setup with Compute Engine Startup Script
Welcome back. In the last few steps, we created a virtual machine and installed Apache HTTP Server on it. However, there are a lot of steps to creating a VM and setting up the Apache HTTP server on it. How do you reduce the number of steps in creating a VM instance and setting up an HTTP server? In the next few steps, we'll explore a few options to do that. The first one is a startup script. We want to run a script on the startup of a VM machine to automatically install the Apache server. The next option is an instance template. The last option we would explore is a custom image in this step. Let's get started with the first option, which is a startup script. How can we use a startup script to set up an Apache HTTP server on the start of a VM instance? The process of installing any software orinstalling OS patches when a VM instanceis launched is called Bootstrapping. Whenever you are launching a virtual machine, you want to be sure that it is secure. How can you be sure that it's secure? You want to ensure that all the OS patches, including the latest ones, are also applied, and one of the options to be able to do that is to use a startup script in the virtual machine. You can configure a startup script for Bootstrap. Let's now see a simple demo using this startup script. So let's go back to our VM instances. VM instances on compute engines is where we're headed, and we don't really have any virtual machine instances right now. That's cool. Let's go ahead and say "Create." And over here I'll call this my VM with startup script, and I'll choose the defaults for most of the things I want HTTP traffic for. So the firewall is blocking HTTP traffic, and I would like to install some software on the launch of the VM machine. For that, we would need to configure the startup script, and to be able to do that, we'll click on this Management Security, this Networking Sole Tenancy. It would open up a few tabs. We will talk about these tabs a little later. For now, we would want to focus on the startup script. So if you scroll little down inmanagement you would see Startup Script. You can choose to specify a startup script that will run when your instance boots up or restarts. Startup scripts can be used to install software and updates and to ensure that the services are running within the virtual machine. And as part of our startup script, what do you want to do? We don't want to do an app update, and then we want to install Apache 2, and then we want to set up a simple page. The exact script to use is also present in the previous step. So if you want, you can actually copy it from there or from the PPT. So I'll go to the startup script and paste this in. So over here in the startup script, we want to use Bash, and we are saying app update and app install Apache 2. When we install Apache 2 without using Y, it would ask a question: "Do you want to go ahead and install Apache 2?" And we don't want a question to be asked. That's why we add in an option Y, and the echo is the same as what we had earlier. So now let's go ahead and say "Create." The two things that we have customised are number one: we enable HTTP access in the firewall. Number two, we configured a startup script. The instance has been launched up.What I would recommend you do is to actually give it a couple of minutes. So even after the instance is ready, it would take a couple of minutes for all the software installations to happen because we are installing a few things during the launch of the virtual machine. So give it a couple of minutes and then actually click the external IP, and then you'd see something of this kind. Hello world from my VP with the startup script. ten dot one to eight, dot zero dot three, and this is the internal IP that matches in Here in the next step, we'll look at how to automate the installation of OS patches or any software that you'd want to install when you launch a VM. We did that using a startup script. As far as the exam is concerned, remembering about the startup script is very, very important.
9. Step 09 - Simplifying VM creation with Instance Templates
Welcome back. In the final step, we modified the startup script to simplify the installation of an HTTP server on a virtual machine. However, let's say I want to create another instance. What I would need to do is go in, choose the hardware and software, and then configure the startup script, elaborate the HTTP firewall, and then go ahead and create the instance. How can I avoid that? How can I create instances? Even more easily? The question to ask is: Why do we need to specify all the VM instance details? For example, for image, instance type, startup script, and everything else whenever you launch an instance, how about creating an instance template? When you create an instance template, you can define the machine type, image labels, startup script, and a lot of other properties related to your virtual machine. And you can use a template to launch your virtual machines thereafter. So this is used to create virtual machine instances, and a little later we'll also look at something called instance groups. You can launch a group of virtual machines. You can use instance templates to launch individual VM instances or a group of VM instances. One important thing about an instance template is that it cannot be updated. Once you create an instancetemplate, you cannot change it. What you can do is actually make a copy of the existing template, change it, and create a new version of it. Another feature that is present with instancetemplates is that instead of specifying a specific image, you can also specify an image family. When you specify an image family, the latest nondeprecated version of that specific family is used. Let's now try and create an instance template and create a couple of VM instances. How can I create an instance template? I think that's very easy, right? I can go to the instance template and create it now. Before that, what I would do is go into the instance that is already running and copy the startup script for it. So if you scroll down and go to the metadata part of it and go to customer metadata, this is where you can see the startup script. What I would do is I would want to use this startup script, so I'll copy it. You can also copy it and paste it in a text file so that we can reuse it multiple times. I would go to instance templates, and we don't create an instance template, so create a new instance template. I would call this my instance template. You can see from the startup script that I don't need to specify a region or a zone when creating an instance template because an instance template can be used to create resources in multiple regions and zones. That's the reason why we don't need a configured region or a zone. I'll choose the default machinetype which is recommended. I'll choose the default boot disk, which is recommended. I'll say all HTTP traffic, then move on to management, security, disk, and networking. This would be the same as what we would have when we configured a virtual machine. and over here I'd go and configure a startup script. So this is the same thing that we configured earlier. And let's go ahead and say "Create." There is no cost associated with creating an instance template. However, when we create instances using the instance template, then we would need to pay for them. Now let's try and create an instance with this specific instance template. All that I need to do is click this and Create VM," and on the next page, you will see that all the details that we configured earlier are pre populated.You can choose the region and zone. However, you'd see that all the things like machine configuration and the boot disk are pre-populated with the values we chose when we were creating the template. You can see that the firewall is automatically configured to allow HTTP traffic. And if you click on Management, you'll see that the startup script is already populated in here. You can customise this further if you want, but ideally, what you need to do is to use an instance template and then directly go ahead and create an instance. You can see that now a new instance is being created using the instance template. You can use this instance template to create as many instances as you want. Let's go back to VM instances. I don't really need the My VM startup script anymore, so let's go ahead and delete that. So I've selected this, and let's go ahead and delete it. So this would delete the MyBDM file with the startup script. The only VM that would be running right now is the one that was created using my instance template. With startup script, you can see that the name of that specific instance is the name of the template appended with a numeral. So there's a hyphenated one in here, and you can see that this is an assigned external IP. Let's click that, and you can see that helloworld is coming from my instance template with setupscript one and the internal IP ten. Let's make sure that this is the right instance. In the last few steps, we saw how we can simplify the creation of VM instances and also set up some software on them. We started with the manual approach, where we created a VM instance. We assessed it and then setup the software using a few commands. After that, we made use of a startup script, and now we have a template. And now with the template, it's very easy. You can use the template to launch new instances whenever you want. I'm sure you're having an interesting time, and I'll see you on the next step.
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