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Introduction to Program Management
1. The PMO
By definition, the project is a temporary endeavour undertaking to create a unique product, service or result. Temporary means it has start and end dates. Unique means it has a specific scope to deliver. The programme is a group of related projects, sub, programmes and programme activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Let us elaborate more on this definition starting with the subprogram. The subprogram is actually a programme that is managed as part of another program. Then the programme activities means activities within the programme but not related to a specific component like the programme steering, meeting, the programme risk analysis, and so on. Please note that the programme component maybe a project, a subprogram or a group of other work within the program. This other work may be programme management or work related to the component projects such as training, operations and maintenance activities. These components are managed in a coordinated way, which means there is an organised effort to execute the different component activities and there will be some dependencies between these different components. This effort will start from the planning phase as each component should look for the other components within the same programme and consider the dependencies and the touch points that need integration. Remember that the benefits you obtain from the programme are not available if you decided to manage each component individually. The programme is established to get the plan benefits and achieve its objectives by managing all components in accordinated and integrated way. Now let us review the portfolio definition. The portfolio is a component collection of programs, projects or operations managed it as a group to achieve strategic objectives. So the key here is the strategic objectives which were created on the organisation level. Then the strategist or the management split these strategic objectives into initiatives that were translated into programs, projects and operations. Remember, if you have some projects with separate goals, are not characterised by synergy benefit delivery and are only related by common funding, technology or stakeholders, then these efforts are better managed as a portfolio rather than as a program. This is because the programme and itis having relation between its components. Look at this chart as an example of one organisation having portfolio, programme and projects. Remember that the portfolio level is usually higher than the programme level and the project level and the program level is usually higher than the project level. In this chart, portfolio one has components of programs, projects and operation work, while program two, which is part of portfolio one, has three projects as programme components. The organisation unit might be a department or a unit within the organisation and it might be repeated geographically, for example, depends on the organisation structure. This is just an example of the practical life. But you may see in your organisation some other structure.
2. The Program Structure
The second topic in the introduction is about the PMO. The letter B may stand for project, programme or portfolio. Therefore, we have three different offices. the Project Management Office, the Program Management Office, and the Portfolio Management Office. Let us start with the Project Management Office and review this chart. The Project Management Office here is higher in the organisation than the project managers and is reporting to a manager with a higher level than the project managers. By definition, the Project Management Office is the entity in the organisation structure that's responsible for standardisation of the project processes, procedures, governance, and methodology and that facilitates the project resource requirements. It provides the project managers with the tools they need to manage their projects and the senior management with a homogeneous view of progress across the different projects. The responsibilities and authorities of the PMO vary from one organisation to another. depends on the PMO structure type. The different types of PMO structure are supportive, controlling, and directive. The differences are summarised as follows. The PMO is an unsupportive structure that exists solely to facilitate project logistics and administration. It may provide the project managers with the required project templates. This is a weak form of the PMO. It is like an administrative office. The second PMO type is a controlling PMO, where the PMO is responsible for the project management processes, procedures, and methodology. Standardization enforces these standards, audits the projects, and reports the project status in a dashboard to senior management. This is a governance-focused type. The third VMO type is directive. In addition to controlling the project, the directive VMO manages the project managers and is ultimately responsible for the project's success or failure. This is the direct management style—both directive and controlling. With our strong implementation of the PMO, I recommend that you select one of these two to implement in your organization. On the other hand, the PMO may be one person or a team of PMO officers, quality officers, or administrators managed by the PMO manager. The team size depends on the organization's structure, the number of projects, and the importance of the projects managed by the PMO. Now let us review the program. Management office. Here, you have project managers reporting to the programme manager, and you have the programme management office above the project level and below the programme management level, which means that the programme management office is reporting to the programme manager and having influence on the project managers or having responsibilities higher than the project management responsibilities. The Program Management Office here is usually accountable for the status reporting, program schedule, programme level, processes and procedures, and programme governance. The Program Management Office may have one person or more, depending on the size and structure of the programme and the responsibilities given to the Program Management Office. the last BMO. The structure type is the portfolio management office. Here you can see the Portfolio Management Office oversees some portfolios, has a higher level in the organisational structure than the level of the portfolio managers, and reports to the Organization Unit Management. This organization's unit management may be a department manager, a VB, or any other senior. Management depends on the organisation structure. The primary focus of the Portfolio Management Office is to maximise the value delivered by the portfolios using the organization's resources within the organization's accepted risks. It translates the strategic objectives into projects and programs. It applies the required organisational strategic changes by creating new projects or programs, requesting scope changes for the existing projects and programs, or even by cancelling a specific project or programme that's not aligned with the strategic objectives anymore. The Portfolio Management Office does not have a major influence on the programme management standards, but it has a high impact on the program's existence. As just mentioned, the different PMO organisation levels can coexist together. So you may have in the same organisation a project management office and a portfolio management office. You may have a project management office and a programme management office. Or you may have the three offices together. project management office, programme management office, and portfolio management office. Each management office will have its own function to apply to the projects, programs, or portfolios, but the alignment between the offices is highly mandated.
3. Program Structure Roles and Responsibilities - Actual Example
The third topic in the introduction is the programme structure. We will start with a simple programme structure, which consists of the programme manager role and a few project manager roles who will manage the projects within the programme in order to achieve the planned objectives and realise the expected benefits. The structure may also have a programme administrator role to help in executing the programme administration activities. The regular programme structure consists of the programme manager role, many project manager roles who will manage their projects within the programme, and the programme management office that may have a PMO manager and PMO officer. The regular structure is more mature, with a larger number of projects and the introduction of the PMO role to assist the programme manager in doing his job efficiently. The complex programme structure will have subprograms in addition to the projects. Thus, it consists of the programme manager role, many project manager roles who will manage their projects within the program, some sub programme manager roles who will manage the sub programmes within the program, and the programme management office that will have the PMO manager, the PMO officer, and maybe some other officers like a quality officer, a safety officer, a security officer, etc. The structure here is more complicated as there are some subprograms included, and the role of the PMO is becoming more responsible for more areas within the program. When creating the programme structure, you should make sure that the identification of the programme components, including the projects and the subprograms, is correct. Therefore, each of the identified projects should have a sufficient boundary that allows the projects to be managed separately to some extent and apart from the programme while maintaining the required integration. Similarly, each of the identified sub-programs should have a sufficient boundary that allows the sub-program to be managed separately to some extent and apart from the programme while maintaining the required integration. Let us review this example of a programme structure for telecommunications business support systems, which is called PSS, and which are the systems used by the service provider to run their business operations. In this example, there are seven project managers reporting to the programme manager. Each of them is managing his project billing project, CRM project, ERB project, web project integration project, testing and quality assurance project, and infrastructure project The project management office in this example has three roles: PMO Manager, BMO Officer, and BMO Administrator. Each project has a project manager and a project team reporting to the project manager to achieve the project objectives. At the same time, all projects are integrated together to achieve the programme objectives. For instance, the infrastructure project is delivering the hardware and software required by the other projects to execute their activities, the integration project is managing the touchpoints between the other projects and ensuring integrity, and the web project is responsible for preparing the web interface required by the CRM project ERb and maybe the billing project.
4. What is the Program Management?
The last topic in this section is programme management. We reviewed the programme definition, and we understood what is meant by the programme component. Now we will see what is the programme management. Program management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a programme to meet the programme requirements and obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually. So it is a method for managing all programme components at a higher level in order to achieve programme goals and objectives. Do not forget that the programmes are your means of executing the corporate strategies and achieving your business or organisational goals and objectives. The programme management roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined during the programme planning phase to overcome any future conflict and to help the programme team be more focused. Committees usually have an important role in programme management. For instance, programmes usually have a steering committee that utilise to make the important program decision, review the programme progress andadvise to rectify the wrong programme performance. Program management is more difficult than project management in terms of the programme manager's role and responsibilities, the importance of the programme to the organization, the more difficult issues confronting the program, the larger team present in the program, the interface with more senior stakeholders, the more complicated financial management, the higher the level of uncertainty on the program, and the method for dealing with the scope of change. Therefore, programme management is more complicated than project management. It requires a more talented person with higher soft skills to deal with the people and situations and a higher-level-oriented person who can dive deep at times but keep the helicopter view at all times. Let us review the major programme and project differences, starting with the uncertainty. The programme uncertainty is greater than the project uncertainty because the programme scope is typically not clearly defined at the start and is subject to change to ensure greater compliance with strategic organisational changes. In addition, the programme usually has more team members and a longer duration, which increase uncertainty about its success. Moving to the program, the programme is managing the change in a different way than the project. It is not trying to control the change, similar to the project, but it implements the changes that will help the programme objectives to be achieved, the expected benefits to be realized, and the organization's strategic needs. In terms of complexity, the program is more complex than the project. It has a larger scope and more sophisticated planning. Its structure is more complex. The team to manage and lead is bigger and includes more mature members. The last item is the success measurement. The program's success is measured based on the benefits, realization, and degree of fulfilment of the organization's strategic objectives. But the project's success is measured by its planned deliverables, customer satisfaction, and control over time, cost, and quality. The programme management performance domains are just groupings of the related areas of activities, concerns, or functions within the full scope of programme management work. The programme management has five performance domains, which are the programme lifecycle management, which mainly reviews the program's different phases the programme strategy alignment, which concentrates on the programme alignment with the organisation strategy the programme benefits management, which focuses on the benefits realization; the programme stakeholder engagement, which focuses on managing the relations with the stakeholders; and the programme governance, which spotlights the governance formation and adherence. In other words, the programme management has five major dimensions to manage the programmes and measure its performance. We will review each domain separately in the following sections.
5. Introduction to Program Management – Summary
Just to wrap up, we have reviewed in this section the definitions of the project, program, and portfolio. We notice the differences between the Project management office, the Program management office and the Portfolio management office. We highlighted the three different types of programme structures: the simple programme structure, the regular programme structure, and the complex programme structure that has subprograms that exist as programme components. We reviewed one example of the roles and responsibilities covering these three types. The last topic in this section covers the definition of the programme management, the main differences between programme and project, and the programme management of performance domains.
The Program Management Life Cycle Domain
1. Program Management Life Cycle Introduction
Starting with the programme management lifecycle domain, in this section we'll cover the following: the programme management lifecycle phases and subphases; the programme management lifecycle interaction with the project management process groups when having the project as a programme component; the programme management lifecycle interaction with the subprogram management and with the portfolio management; and the major artefacts created through our programme management lifecycle.
2. Program Management Life Cycle Phases and Sub-phases
The programme management lifecycle phases are summarized in this chart. Here we have three phases. Program definition phase, programme benefits delivery phase, and programme closure phase Each phase is divided into sub-phases, so the programme definition phase has programme simulation and programme preparation sub phases. The programme benefits delivery phase has component planning and authorization, component oversight and integration, and component transition and closure sub phases. The programme closure phase has programme transition and programme close-out sub phases.Each sub-phase has a specific color. I use the same colour throughout this course to ease and facilitate the subject. You can also see that the Program Definition phase and the Program Closure phase are executed once, but the Program Benefits Delivery phase is repeated with each programme component, which may be a project or a subprogram. In other words, the programme definition phase and the programme closure phase focus on the programme management level, but the programme benefits delivery phase concentrates on the component management level. In the Program Benefits Delivery phase, the components are executed in parallel passes as shown in this chart with different start dates and end dates. I think this notation as "parallel pass" is more realistic than the cyclic notation that was used for the same phase in the Standards for Program Management, Third Edition from BMI. As cyclic relationships give the impression of executing the same process for one component many times, this is not our case. So if the programme has three projects and one subprogram, you will execute the Program Benefit's Delivery phase four times, each with a different start date and end date. Therefore, in this chart, you will have four branches for the Program Benefits Delivery phase. Instead of the three branches, let us review the major activities at each subphase to make the picture more obvious. Starting with the programme definition phase, in the programme formulation phase, we mainly have the programme sponsor and the programme manager assigned to create the initial study and estimates of the program, secure the program's finance, create the programme charter, and create the programme roadmap. Then, in the Program Preparation subphase, we establish the programme governance, develop the initial organisation chart, and develop the programme management plans. Remember that the programme definition phase is executed once on the programme level and is not repeated with each programme component. The programme has benefits. The delivery phase has three sub phases. The first one is component planning and authorization, where you start to formalise component scope and deliverables, blend the component integration, and develop the component management plans. Then, at the Component Oversight and Integration Surface, you execute component plans and programme integration work and produce the component benefit. The last surface is a component transition and closure, where you execute the component transition, including going live with product support, service agreements, operation, etc. and formalise component closure with the concerned stakeholders. Remember that the Program Benefits Delivery Fee is repeated with each programme component. The Program Closure Phase has two subphases theprogram transitions phase where you start the transition of resources, responsibilities and knowledge and you document the lessons learned and the programme close outsub phase where you close all open contracts, assure the benefits are realised as per the stakeholder expectations and get the senior management approval to close the program. Remember that the programme closure fee is executed once on the programme level and is not repeated with each programme component, but the component closure is executed as part of the programme benefit delivery phase.
3. Program Management Life Cycle interaction with the Project Management
Let us go into the details of the components and see how the programme lifecycle interacts with the component management. starting with the project as a component. As you can see in the discharge, the project management processes are all executed during the programme benefits delivery phase. Once the project is authorised to start as part of the programme pension delivery phase, the project starts its regular project management processes from initiation, passing through planning, execution, and monitor and control, until it reaches its closing processes. The project initiation and planning process groups will be executed as part of the programme component planning and authorization sub phase. Then the project execution and monitor and control process groups will be executed as part of the component oversight and integration surface. Finally, as part of the component transition and closure subfields, the project closing process group will be performed. If you have two projects as programme components, then this cycle of project management will be repeated twice. Each one will have its own start and end dates based on the programme roadmap. As mentioned earlier, all the project processes are executed as part of the programme benefits delivery fees, but they are initiated, planned, executed, monitored and controlled, and then closed as per the programme roadmap. Therefore, they were not started together. But some projects will start earlier than others, and you may have one project as a prerequisite to another project. Usually the programme roadmap defines this relationship and the timeline requirements between the programme components. These relationships and timeline requirements depend on each component's scope, deliverables, and benefits to be realized. In this chart, you can see that Project One is the first project to start and Project Two is the last project to start. In addition, you can see that project four is the first project to end and project three is the last project to end. The project artifacts, which are the major project management items that are created during the execution of the project management processes, are all considered part of the programme benefits delivery fees. This chart lists the project artefacts with colour coding used to group the artefacts by the project management process group. You can see that during the initiation process group, the major artefacts are the project charter and stakeholder register. The project scope statement, project management plans with all subsidiary plans, project work breakdown, structure, project schedule, and so on are the major artefacts created during the planning process group. The main reason to have this chart is to get the data and impression of when the project artefacts are created in the programme lifecycle when dealing with this project as a programme component.
4. Program Management Life Cycle interaction with Subprogram/Portfolio Management
In some cases, the program component is another program. We usually call it a subprogram. To classify this programme as a special programme managed as part of another program, the sub programme is executed rooted as a programme component, which means that there will be some interactions between the programme management and the sub programme management. The sub programme management lifecycle is similar to the programme management lifecycle with respect to the programme management lifecycle. The subprogram is executed as part of the program benefits delivery fees as described in this chart. Therefore, the subprogram life cycle will start and end as part of the programme benefits delivery fee. The subprogram lifecycle will start with the subprogram definition fees, sub programme benefits delivery fees and then sub programme closure fees. The sub programme will have activities and will create artifacts similar to the programme activities and artefacts which will be discussed later in this course. The portfolio management works as a layer between the organisation strategies and objectives from the upper side and the programs, projects and operations from the lower side. Decisions to change or cancel a programme are usually coming from the portfolio management level. In order to adapt to the changes happened in the organisation strategies and objectives. The portfolio management processes are grouped in three groups the defining process group, the aligning process group and the authorising and controlling process group. The portfolio management interacts with the program management, project management and operation management from one side and interacts with the organization strategies and objectives from the other side. These interactions are described in this chart. The changes in strategies and objectives on the organization level affect the portfolio management level, which will lead to authorising new programs, projects and operation management, and may lead also to changes in the existing programs, projects and operation management within the same portfolio. In addition, the portfolio oversight, which is part of the portfolio Rising and controlling, will have influence on the programs, projects and operations and will lead to status reporting, decision making requests and maybe some requirements to escalate it to the organisation level. The portfolio manager is concentrating on doing the right work that is aligned with the organization strategies and objectives and creating the right environment for the portfolio component managers to succeed. The portfolio component manager, who is the program manager in our cases, is concentrating in doing his work right to succeed in his program.
5. Program Management Life Cycle - Major Artifacts
The major programme artefacts that are usually created or updated in each programme life cycle, phase and sub fees are described in this chart. Using the colour code, you can quickly identify the programme artefacts for each program lifecycle phase and even sub phase. Let us describe some of these artefacts here and the rest of the major artefacts will be described throughout this course in the coming sections. Starting with the programme charter, we can say that the charter is a formal document that authorizes the programme management team to use organizational resources to execute the programme as bear, the business case and the organisation strategic priorities. The programme management plan has many elements. It includes many subsidiary plans, many documents, the organisation vision and mission, and expected benefits reduced by the program. It includes candidate programme components and management plans needed to achieve the desired organisational benefits. The programme management plan includes the following subsidiary plans the benefits realisation plan, the governance plan, the communications management plan, the quality management plan, the resource management plan, the risk management plan, the schedule management plan, scope management plan, stakeholder engagement plan, financial management plan and the procurement management plan. The programme infrastructure is the structure that will enable the programme to achieve successfully its goals. It is sometimes called Organization Chart. It contains a major program roles and their responsibilities. The Program Master Schedule is a program level schedule that includes all the major milestones and deliverables at the programme level. It also includes major activities related to components integration and programme management. Each component will have its own detailed schedule and all component level schedules will be synchronised with the Program Master Schedule. Please note that it is not mandatory that all the artefacts will be produced in all the program management cases, but some tuning is usually required. Acquired from one programme to another and from one organisation to another, this is usually dependent on the programme complexity, the organization maturity, and the programme management experience.
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