220-1002: CompTIA A+ Certification Exam: Core 2 Certification Video Training Course
CompTIA A+ Certification Exam: Core 2 Training Course
220-1002: CompTIA A+ Certification Exam: Core 2 Certification Video Training Course
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Book Chapter 2 - The Visible Computer

1. What is an Operating System

Computers are amazing things. With a CPU, RAM, and storage, they can run all kinds of different types of programs. But the challenge we run into with any computer is that this one computer could have lots of different programmes on it. Any one of us is probably running a computer where we're running a web browser and a game and all kinds of things simultaneously. So there's something behind the scenes. It's kind of acting like a conductor, telling us who's running at any given moment. So we also have files that are stored on the system. We have all of these things going on. So what we need is a kind of programme to run all the programs, and that's basically what an operating system does for us. So in this episode, what I want to talk about is what an operating system really is, and what are some of the jobs that it does? So when we're talking about operating systems, the first thing we talk about is what we call the kernel, which is built into every operating system. And by the way, when we say operating systems, I'm talking about operating systems. Maybe you've heard of Microsoft Windows, MacOS, or Android. Or Linux. All of these are designed to do all this. In this particular example, I'm going to be using Windows, but I could have done this easily with any other operating system. So it all starts with the kernel. The kernel is the core part of the operating system that handles the primary memory management. If somebody wants to start a program, it's the kernel that decides where that programme is going to sit in your RAM, how often it will run, and all of that type of stuff. When we run a program, it goes from the hard drive and then comes on to RAM, which we actually call memory at that point. So Ram has memory is Ram.Did you get the reference? Anyway, so what I want us to do is let's take aquick look on I've got a Windows Ten up and running here. And remember, when the programme starts to run, we call it a process. So let's take a look up here on the screen. Now I'm running a programme built into Windows called Resource Monitor. Every operating system has a tool similar to this. And I want you to look right here. Do you see PID? That stands for ProcessID. Every single programme that's running in memory right now gets its own unique process ID. Now I want you to take a look at this. On this Windows system, look how many processes are running right now on my computer. There are a tonne of them running, and that's pretty typical on today's systems. Now you might look at that and go,well, I don't see a web browser open. It doesn't look like Mike's playing a game or running a Word document. That's because there are all kinds of underlying programmes that are doing all kinds of important work for us. So the colonel's job is to act as a conductor and keep all of these guys running in such a fashion that nobody's stomping on each other and it's running absolutely great. Over the years, different types of CPUs have been needing to run on more and more memory. The original IBM PC way back in 1979 could handle a whopping, are you ready? 6400 bytes of memory. Today, even my phones are going to have 8 GB of memory in them. So there's been a need over the years for more and more programmes to be running simultaneously. And in order to do this, built into every CPU is the ability to address memory. And in order to address memory, if you take a look at the bottom of a CPU, there's nothing on the bottom of that thing but a bunch of wires. So what they do is dedicate a certain number of wires just to be able to talk to the memory. In the old days it was eight bits, then for a while it was 16 bits, for a number of years it was 32 bits, and today it's 64 bits. These are really, really important values. The idea behind an operating system is that it knows exactly how to talk to a particular type of CPU. And if the CPUs went from the ability to talk to 32 bits' worth of memory up to 64 bits' worth of memory, we had to redesign our operating systems to be able to handle that. And you'll see that even today, although it's fading out quite quickly, you could get a 32-bit version of Windows and a 64-bit version of Windows, a 32-bit version of Linux and a 64-bit version of Linux, and you had to know, based on whatever CPUs were in your computer, which operating system was best for you to get—pretty much everybody's 64-bit today. So this is much less of an issue than it used to be. Now, it's critical that when you're looking at software, you make sure that it's designed to work with whatever operating system you're using at the time. Luckily for us, most 64-bit operating systems, for example, 64-bit Windows 10, can run both 64-bit versions of Microsoft Word and, if you still have one laying around, 32-bit versions of Microsoft Word. So software compatibility is always a big issue. If you're running a 32 bit version of Windows, don't even think about trying to install a 64 bit version of Word. not going to happen. It'll just give you an error. It'll just plain stop. So dealing with memory is a big job of the operating system, and that's what the kernel is all about. The second big thing we're going to see with an operating system is dealing with hardware. Now, obviously this computer is going to be doing a lot of input and output, so it needs to know how to talk to the keyboard. It needs to know how to talk to the mouse; it needs to know how to output to the monitor. So all of these devices together have to work and have to be able to speak the language of the operating system, and vice versa. And that's where we get into something called device drivers. Every different operating system has to have its own device drivers for any given piece of hardware. Now, let's return to this Windows system, and what we're looking at here is Device Manager, which displays all of the device drivers on a Windows system. Again, just because I'm doing this in Windows doesn't mean you can't do it in any other operating system. So if we take a look at this, for example, network adapters So you'll see that I've got some network cards in here and a bunch of built-in stuff that comes with the system. What else do I have? Any mice? Yeah, I've got some mice in here. How many keyboards do I have? I've got three keyboards, okay? I don't really have three keyboards. What's happening here is that Windows allows me to do virtualized keyboards and some fun stuff like that. As a result, it includes a few extra device drivers. So device drivers are software. They are programmes that are stored on the hard drive. And when the operating system boots up, those device drivers act as the interface between my hardware devices and the operating system itself. So every different operating system is going to have its own set of device drivers. So if these device drivers are working well now, we get good input and output. It's the way we communicate with our keyboards or mice, our printers, or whatever it might be. And that's where it really comes into play in terms of how we deal with all of these different devices. The next one is going to be storage. Now, if we take a look at my system over here, here I am in what we call File Explorer in Windows. And again, every operating system has a tool like this. I can actually look on the drives, and you can see I'm looking on my drives. and I could go in here. I don't have much on this particular system. You see, it's pretty empty right now. But this is a hierarchical organisation of the storage of my hard drive itself. Every operating system stores data, be it programmes or real data, as folders or files. There's no exception to that. And part of the fun of learning new operating systems is getting used to the hierarchical structure of how they store different types of stuff. The fifth thing I want to mention is networking. A billion years ago, if you bought an operating system, you had to install networking as a separate third-party tool. It hasn't been that way in a long, long time. So let's take a look here on my Windows system. One more time. And in this case, what I'm showing you is the interface for the networking, which is built into Windows, so I can set up a network connection if I want to. I can take a look at my current interfaces. Right now, I've got an Ethernet, whatever that is. It has a networking card built in. And this is something called virtualization. I've got a great episode on that, which you can watch. Man, that was a lot of stuff in a tiny little bit of an episode, huh? If you feel like you've got a little bit of a heavy load there, don't worry about it. We're going to be going through lots and lots of this stuff in much greater detail as we drill down to understand what an operating system really is.

2. Users and Super Users

One thing we do with all of our computers is go through a process of logging in. If I've got a window system, when I get there I've got to step up to it and log in. If I've got my Acer Chromebook here, I open this up and log into my Chrome operating system. even on my phones. If I want to get in there, I've got to type in a code and actually log in. That is, each of these devices has what is known as a generic user account. So everything has a user account. Even if you're logging into your home router, you've got to type in a username and password. Everything has a user account. And that means inside each one of these devices is some kind of little database that has a list of user account names like Mike and then some kind of password, all encoded. You can't find my password just by looking at my computer. Now this is a good thing, and we use this for security. But I want to come up with ascenario and think about this for a minute. Here's one computer. In fact, this computer is actually at Mission Control at NASA. And the job of this computer is to run 24 hours a day because whoever is sitting at this particular post in mission control uses it for their projects and all that kind of stuff. So every 8 hours, somebody logs in, does their work, and at the end of the eight-hour shift, they log off. So this one computer right here is used by three different people. So this one computer right here has at least three different user accounts. Okay? Now that's easy. But let me come up with a situation. Let's say somebody quits, and they have special data on their computer that nobody else can get to it.Or what if one of these other people suddenly gets mad and decides that they want to erase the hard drive? Well, that's a problem. What we need is some kind of special super-duper account. Some kind of all-powerful Big Kahuna account that is built into all computers allows us to kind of take over, take control, and do almost anything that we want to do. Now that type of account is known as super user account," "administrator account," or any of a bunch of other names. But what's important is that you understand that every computer has this super-duper account. These super-duper accounts are incredibly important, and as you can imagine, they're also really dangerous. So what I want to do is show you some of these types of accounts and how we deal with them on different computers. So let's start off right over here. And what I've got is a Linux system. So you can see, I have to log in. So I'm logging into my Linux system. This particular Linux is called Ubuntu. Don't panic; we've got plenty of other episodes. You're going to be seeing this. So what I want to do right now is say I want to add a piece of software. So here's an interesting piece of software I'd like to add. I'm going to hit Install, and I want you to see what it does right here. What you're looking at is that it's requiring some form of authentication. Now I'm currently logged in as Mike, and I have that super-duper power. So in the Linux world, we call it super user, or just su. So I can go ahead and log in, and then I can go ahead and install a program. Now if you were on my Ubuntu system and you didn't have that, you wouldn't just see the name and then ask for a password. They would ask you to type in a name and a password. This is a protection tool that all operating systems have that keeps us from doing dangerous things. If I got onto this Unix system right now and decided to, oh, I guess it's not Unix, it's Linux. And if I decided to go in and suddenly decide to erase the hard drive, another screen would pop up and disappear. Before we're going to let you do something evil like this, type in the username and password of a super user so that we know that this is something you really want to do. Now here's the important thing I need you to take away from this episode. Every single computer in existence has built-in user accounts of some form. Yeah, I know on my smartphone, I'm not actually typing in a username and a password, but I'm pulling it up and I'm typing in a code. So I'm always doing something to uniquely identify me. Also, every single computer in existence has some kind of superuser account—a superuser account, an administrator account, whatever it might be—that's designed to allow you to do whatever you need to do on any given system. As you might imagine, we're very careful about our super-duper accounts. Those are not the kind of things that we want users to have as technicians. We have some control over this because we don't want our poor regular users doing things like, I don't know, accidentally erasing an entire hard drive.

3. Why Windows?

Many people ask me—they go, Mike—why Windows is so popular. And there are things like Linux out there, and there are also all these Apple nerds out there who think macOS is the greatest thing since sliced bread. So. Why windows? I mean, really, why is Windows the predominant desktop operating system in the world today? Well, I'm going to tell you right now. Number one, it has to do with the good salesmanship of this guy named Bill Gates. Bill Gates worked out a deal with the original IBM PC, or really worked out a deal with Intel Corporation, the people who make the CPUs, about 4 billion years ago, and basically said that whenever someone buys an Intel CPU, they also get a copy of the Microsoft operating system, which back in the day was this ancient operating system of your forefathers called DOS. But the rule kept coming into the world of Windows. So this "per processor agreement" basically forced everybody to have a copy of Windows who bought an Intel processor. Now that's kind of changed over the years, but that really created a strong user base. Another thing it did was have something to do with networking. Microsoft did a really good job of building networking into its operating system. But there's a challenge with all the ways that this works. Number one, you have to sit down and log into a computer. That's great, but let's situate ourselves in a network for a moment. All right. So let's just say we've got a number of computers that are all networked together, and they're all hooked into this thing called a switch in the middle. So we've got all these computers. Now each one of these computers has its own database of usernames and passwords. So if you log into one, that's great. But if you want to access resources from another computer, you must carry along your username and password. Now you're still sitting at your own computer, but your query to grab some data basically has your username and password associated with it. So you better have the same username and the same password on this other computer if you want to share a folder or use somebody's printer, or whatever it might be. Now that becomes a problem because, after awhile, everybody has to have a user account on every one of these computers. So if I've got, say, five different people on there, each one of these computers has to have five usernames and passwords built into every one of those, and heaven forbid somebody quits. All of a sudden, we're going to have to go into each one of these computers and delete that user account. It's terrible. It's such a terrible way of doing things. Well, Microsoft came up with this concept of something called a domain a long time ago. Now let's take a look at the same picture, but let's make one change. In this case, I'm going to add one more computer. Now, this computer is a server. It's not running Windows. It's running well. It is Windows, but it's called Windows Server. Now, a regular copy of Windows these days will set you back about $100 to $150. These days, a copy of Server is going to set you back $1,000. $502,000. Why? Well, it just has a lot more features, and one of them is this domain thing. So let me show you how this works. So we set up this Windows server, and we set it up as what's known as a domain controller. Now this domain controller has its own set of usernames and passwords. So when you log into any one of your regular computers, you're not logging into what we call "locally," you're logging into the domain. Now this gives us some really amazing features. Number one, I don't have to set up a bunch of user accounts on every computer in my office. I just set up one single user account on this domain controller. And now anyone can log in anywhere they want. In fact, I can add some really cool extra features. Like, for example, no matter where you log in, you'll get your own desktop and all your own settings, your Start buttons, and everything set up just the way you want it. So domains—in fact, today we call them Active Directory is the more official term, and we've got entire episodes on this. But what's important is that this ability creates what we call single sign on.So now when you come and work at my company, I can give you one domain account with one password, and that will work for you no matter what computer I assign you to. And there's just one sign on.Indeed, Windows single sign-on via domains has become so dominant that other operating systems, such as Linux and macOS, have effectively declared Microsoft the winner. And if you have a Linux or Mac OS system, you will notice that they have software built in that allows them to look, bark, smell, and taste like a Windows computer. So literally built into the Mac OS is a feature that allows you to join these domains and be part of the Windows domain. In fact, you can even do it with a Linux system. So I think it's called File and Print Sharing in macOS. Is that right? Okay, good. And then in the Linux world, we call it Samba. That is so fascinating to me. I've seen here in Texas that we have these big processing centres where you have thousands and thousands of Linux computers, and there's still one Windows computer, a domain controller, because single sign-on is owned by Windows. In fact, let me show you something over here on the screen. I'm in a Windows NT system here, and I'm in the system properties. Now, when you set up a window system, you are either going to be in a workgroup by default, and it's often just called "workgroup," or you're going to be in a domain. Now, you need to be careful here. Most people, in their home environments, don't have a special domain controller or anything like that. And when they're at home, they're probably just going to have a preset up workgroup with the default name of workgroup, so every computer in your home environment needs its own username and password. And I've heard lots of stories of people who get a little frustrated because it's like, "Well, I brought in my laptop and I was trying to share a folder and I was having trouble." It's because you're in a work group. But if I want to, I can come in here and I can set this up to join a domain. Now, you can't just arbitrarily join a domain if you want to have a domain. Well, number one, go out and buy another computer. Number two, buy yourself a very expensive copy of Windows Server and install it on that system. Number three, set up that Windows Server system to be a domain controller. Get the idea? So it's really good for enterprises, but it's not a really great idea for homes and small offices. The important thing that you need to takeaway from this is that there are a lot of good reasons why Windows is dominant. Not only are tools like per processor agreements and things like that coming into play, but particularly in the enterprise environment, in businesses, corporations, and large organizations, domains with this function called Active Directory have literally taken over the world. And you're probably going to be running into Windows in an enterprise environment because people like single sign-on.

4. Windows Editions and Versions

Let's face it, the CompTIA exams really, really weigh on the Microsoft Windows operating system. Sure, there's discussion of macOS, absolutely. We're going to be talking about some Linux, even a little bit of Chromebook, and mobile operating systems as well. But really, all the heavy questions are going to be concentrated on the Windows operating system. So it's important that we know the different versions and additions of the Windows operating system. So, first of all, what I want to talk about are additions. You've probably heard terms like Windows Home or Windows Professional. That is what additions are. So let's kind of give them a quick little breakdown. First of all, what we have are what we call the home editions. Now, when I say home editions, these are designed to work in homes and small offices. These often lack some basic features. For example, you cannot join a Windows domain with these different types of Windows editions. However, they often come with extra features that are often interesting to people, like media tools and things like that, that may not be in other versions. Second is what we're going to call the professional. Or in some versions of Windows, we call them workstation editions. These are what I would consider the core, absolute versions of Windows. These have all the basic tools you need to do whatever you need to do. These always have the ability to join a domain. These often have the ability to do things that people don't notice. For example, in home editions, you can only have 20 other people connect to you at a time. So if you're sharing a bunch of songs or something like that, you can't have more than 20 people connect to you. Home versions often also don't have the ability to take advantage of a lot of CPU power, either. So the Pro versions always have all of these different things. The next version I want to talk about is Enterprise. Now you can't go to your local computer store and buy enterprise editions. Enterprise editions are designed for large organizations. They often have large volume discounting, and they have special features that administrators in large enterprises need to be able to take control of sometimes tens, if not thousands, of computers. So unless you're a big corporation, you're not going to be seeing enterprise additions. Now, I have to at least make one other mention. There are a lot of other editions of Windows. They have or had names like Windows Starter Edition, Windows Ultimate Edition, Windows N, Windows KN, and Windows S. First of all, none of these are going to be on the exam, so don't worry about them. And secondly, they are rare and, in my opinion, weird for the vast majority of people. So I'm simply going to skip over them. There are great articles in Wikipedia if you want to go through that detail, but it's not on the test. Now, within all of these different additions, we have versions. Now, the current exam is going to cover four different versions of Windows. That's going to be Windows Seven, which came out back in, like, 2009. Windows eight, Windows eight one, and Windows ten Now, what I want to do right now is take a quick look at each one of these and just kind of give you an idea of what the big differences are between these four versions of Windows. Let's go ahead and start with Windows Seven. So this is Windows Seven. It's ten, or slightly more than ten, years old, but it's been around for a while and works great. One of the interesting things about this one is that I have something here that I want to call Media Center. Now, this is something we don't see anymore. Let me make that full-screen so you can kind of take a look at it. The idea behind a Media Center was that instead of having a regular Windows interface, you could just bring this up and you could play your music and your videos and look at your pictures and play all your movies. And if you had a TV tuner card, you could even watch TV with that. Media Center is no longer available. Don't confuse this, by the way, with Windows Media Player, which is still very much alive on every copy of Windows. So this is the Media Center, and this is the exam. That's why I'm making a point to actually bring this up to make sure you're aware of it. Windows Seven was the final version of Windows to support Media Center with later versions of Windows, specifically Windows eight and eight. You could go ahead and buy yourself something like that. Windows Ten has dumped it completely. So if you see anything on the exam saying Tommy wants to load Windows Media Center on his Windows 10 home system, he can't. There are ways to do it, but we're not supposed to talk about that. You know what I mean? Nudge nudge. All right, so let's take a look here. First of all, we have the classic Taskbar. Now, Windows Seven didn't introduce the Taskbar, or over here, the Start button, but this is really what developed it. And Windows Seven was the dominant version of Windows in the world until something like late 2018–early 2019, when Windows Ten finally took over. and there are some reasons for it. It's extremely stable, and it works like an absolute charm. So one of the big things I want to show you is the control panel. Now, the Control Panel is your single source for changing just about anything you want on your system. And here I've got it set up with all these small icons. If you need to configure something on your Windows Seven system, you're going to be going into Control Panel. There's a reason I bring up Control Panel; as we look at other versions of Windows, you'll notice that Control Panels are starting to fade and being replaced by something else. Like any corporation, Microsoft constantly wants to improve its products. And around 2012, Microsoft realised that Windows Seven was great. But they wanted a type of Windows that would work on more types of devices. So instead of just being a desktop operating system, they wanted something that would work on tablets and smartphones and all kinds of stuff. And that's when Microsoft unveiled Windows Eight. I've got a copy of it right here. Windows Eight really changed the world a lot. There is no start button in the classic sense; we can move around a little bit, but we have what was known as a Metro desktop with these individual things called tiles. If you wanted to start a program, you would just start typing in its name. So if I wanted to run CTRL Panel, I would just type its name and up it would come. So if you take a look, yes, we have a taskbar, but you notice there is no start button. That drove a lot of people absolutely bananas. But it did introduce a couple of features that were really pretty cool. This is the first version of Windows where we saw what we call the Microsoft Store, and we could actually click on here and install programmes through the Store. Now you could always install programmes in Windows, but in the old days you'd have to bring a CD-ROM or a DVD and stick it in, or you'd have to download something special from the Internet and load the install programme and all that. But with the Store concept—and by the way, Microsoft was about the last operating system to do this— Linux operating systems have had stores for much longer than this, and MacOS has an equivalent as well. So that was pretty cool. people like that. These types of apps work absolutely great. You can still put in a CD and install your own apps the old-fashioned way if you want to. But it gave you a new type of feature that we hadn't seen before. Now, it did have a couple of other fun things. if you take a look. See this guy right here? This is called the Charms Bar. Now the Charms Bar changed things a little bit, and one of the biggest changes is that it introduced a new function called Settings. With Settings. A lot of stuff that used to be handled by the Control Panel is now handled under Settings. So I could change PC settings and all of these different types of things, and yes, I haven't activated it yet. All of these different types of things that used to be handled in the Control Panel are now handled under Settings. Interestingly enough, with Windows 8, it still had the control panel, too. So you had two different functions a lot of the time. You'd either go to settings to make a change or go to the Control Panel to make the exact same change. a problem that we still have today, even in Windows Ten today.So the one other thing that Windows 8 introduced that was pretty cool was the concept of OneDrive as a type of cloud storage. And it really wasn't until Windows 8 that we began to see the Microsoft version of cloud storage, or OneDrive, which we still enjoy to this day. The problem we have here is that there is no Start button, which has driven many people insane because I want my Start button. So within a year, Microsoft came out with an improvement to Windows Eight called Windows Eight One. At first glance, Windows Eight looks a lot like Windows 80. However, it has one, and I mean one, big difference. So all we have to do is click on this, and TADA, we get our Start button back. Now, it doesn't work exactly the same way as the old Start button did, but it was pretty close. The bottom line is that nobody was a huge fan of Windows Eight or Windows Eight One. And Microsoft was motivated in 2015 to come out with the version of Windows we know and love called Windows Ten. Technically, Microsoft is no longer going to be using the numbering system going forward. So this is similar to, for example, the macOS, which used to be called Mac OS X. They just call it MacOS. Now we're going to be seeing the same thing with Windows. So a couple of big changes took place with Windows Ten. Let's take a look. So now I'm in Windows 10. First of all, if you take a look at the upper right-hand corner, the Charms bar is gone. The biggest change, more than anything else, in my opinion, comes from the Start menu. It's very much redesigned. We've got these Metro functions in here, so we have the individual tiles, but they're now just part of the Start menu. We have the Start menu that we know and love, but we also have all of these features in here that people really like. In particular, here is the setting button. The settings are much more complicated than what we saw with earlier versions of Windows. And in fact, Control Panel is almost unnecessarily installed today on most Windows 10 systems. Another fun feature of Windows is that if I right-click on the Start button, I get a whole bunch of functionality features ready to go, all built into one nice little list where I can do almost anything I want simply by right-clicking. By the way, if you want Media Center for Windows Ten, it's not going to happen. It is not available. So in this episode, I wanted to go over some of the features that show up in the different versions. In addition, editions of Windows Now, keep in mind that throughout this entire series, we're going to see lots more differences. But these are the big ones. But trust me, you're going to see a lot more as we progress through the series.

5. Touring the macOS

Here at my company, Total Seminars, you can separate everybody into one of two groups. There are the cool, amazing nerds like me, and there are the Mac users. I'm looking around my entire studio. I'm filled with Mac users right now. But in all honesty, I'm kidding. I actually do enjoy using Max quite a bit. As you can tell, we do videos, and for video development, it's an extremely popular platform. Max's been around now for over 30 years. They've never had nearly the adoption that Windows has. But their small group, which usually covers around 10% of all desktop users, is a vegetarian group, and they are very proud of their platform. So what I want to do in this episode is do a quick little tour of macOS and give you an idea of some of the functions and features that it has. Now, keep in mind, we're really concentrating on the desktop, and we're looking at this from the perspective of a Windows user being exposed to the Mac OS. So let's take a quick peek. This is a pretty standard Mac OS desktop. Now, what I want to start off with is—let's take a look up at the top. So this is what we have in the upper-left corner. We call this the Apple menu. And we're going to see that this menu changes depending on what application is active at any given moment. The status menu is located on the far right hand side of the screen. And this basically just keeps track of how my wireless is doing. Date time. I can light up Siri if I want to. So basically, it gives us an idea of what's taking place on the system at any given moment. Now, probably the most interesting part of the MacOS is down here. We call this the dock. So these are the programmes that I like to use the most and that I place here on the dock. And I have them up and ready to run if I need to use them. So let's go ahead and just pick one here. Arbitrarily. Here's an interesting little note reminder program. So I'm going to fire this up. Oh, by the way, Windows people, it's a single click in Maclam, not a double click like we do in Windows. So here's this one application up.Now, as you look at this, look at the upper left-hand corner. So you'll notice that this Apple menu changes depending on the context of whatever application I have up and running at any given moment. So I can click right here on the desktop, and you'll see that this changes into a finder, which we'll talk about in just a moment. So you run your applications and, like Windows apps, you have maximize, minimize, and close. So I can minimise this if I want. and you can see it's sitting over here. I can bring it back up. I can maximise it, although I'm not sure what it's going to look like with this guy? Yes okay. Maybe not the best example, but it works, so I just click that green button again and bring it back into a window, and then if I want to close it, I do. I hit the X now in this particular case you'll see that it actually closed let's try it again and this time I'm going to try the calendar now if you look at the calendar it's pretty small but you can see that little dot right there that tells me that that programme is running, so a lot of programmes if you hit the red X you see the black dots still there that tell me that the programme is actually still running, so I'm going to bring this back up and Let's make an example of a command button, so it looks like this, and I'm just going to hit command Q, and that is the primary way we quit applications within the macOS environment, okay? So just to show you a couple other little things One of the big things we like to use as a finder, so if you used to use File Explorer in Windows, you'll use it like a finder, so we can bring it up right here, but usually the place to bring it up is we'll see this little smiley face down here and we bring this up, and this will show me the folder content on my specific system, so for example. If I want to see what applications are installed, I can go through here and under "applications," and we can see all the installed applications as well as stuff, for example. There's a Documents folder which is similar to a Documentsfolder in Windows and a Desktop folder which again prettymuch identical in terms of functionality to the desktop folderswithin a Windows environment all right now if you wantto work with System Preferences where is a tool righthere which is pretty much the same name we usein Linux System Preferences and this would be the closestequivalent to the control panel or settings that we seein a Windows environment so here if I want toconfigure a mouse or work with my display resolution whateverI might want to do. This is all going to behandled within System Preferences now. For many decades, the Mac operating system didn't have a command prompt, so in Linux we've always had a command prompt, in Windows we have a command prompt, but for many decades in the Mac environment there was no command line, I couldn't get to a terminal, but about ten years ago they changed that and today we do have a terminal in the classic sense of the word, so if you look right here, here is a terminal that I'm running and I But that LS command It's the same command that I typed in Linux, right? That's because today's Mac OS is actually based on the precursor to Linux, called Unix. So if you know how to use a terminal on a Linux system, you can pretty much use the terminal on a Mac as well. So that makes a lot of Linux. Unix people really like the Mac quite a bit because of that commonality. So this is a very quick tour of Mac West now. We're going to be coming back to it in other episodes, but for right now, what I want to make sure you're comfortable with are some of the terminologies we use, and especially if you're a Windows person, Macs really aren't a bad way to go at all.

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