Cisco CCIE Enterprise 350-401 Topic: Infrastructure Part 10
December 14, 2022

68. VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

Next, we have VRP. VRP is simply a virtual router redundancy protocol, similar to Cisco HSRP. The distinction is between the industry standard and the HSRP Cisco standard; they are nearly identical, but there are a few differences. We’ll see what differences they have. First of all, you can see their timer is set to 1 second, and then you can see that the Mac address is 224 00:18. The VRP print is on by default; VRP cannot directly track interfaces.

It can track an object that is tied to an interface. Okay, so you can see that there are some differences, and again, we are in the existing van. When it comes to SDWAN, specifically Cisco with Telehea Van, we don’t have HSRP but we can run VRP, and we have the customised VRP that I explained in my SDWAN course that you can refer to VRRP in the existing van and VRP in the SDWAN; both are very different. Now, this VRP is very much like HSRP. It is working as a gateway, so we can have the virtual IP; we can have the priority again; higher priorities are better; we can go and set the timers; we can go and enable the authentication. We have the reserve Mac address, which is different here; we have the different Mac addresses. Here you have four times five, e.g., zero, zero, one, xxokay, and here the name of the primary is “active,” the standby is “master,” and the backup that will go and verify in the labs section is “master.” We can go and use noVRP print because by default this will be on.

You can disable it if you want, or you can look into VRP, which is very similar to the output delegation that you have in HSRP. Now we have a very interesting topic here: VRP and HSRP can do load balancing because we have a Cisco proprietary protocol called Glvp for load balancing that is not in this course but that we discussed earlier in section maybe one or section two about how the Glvp works. Glvp is not as popular as VRP or HSRP. Due to some GLBP, they have some reason behind that; they have some internal reason; the active forwarder or the standby are not able to do load balancing in a failure scenario, etc. They have some internal issues with GL-VP. You’ll find that most of the places we go use either HSRP or VRP. Assume you want to perform load balancing. You know that one of the routers is active. One is a standby. And suppose you have thousands of clients or an end point where you want 500 to go through one router and 500 to go through another 100 routers. So, how do we go about doing that? So what I’m saying is, let me try to draw, and you can see the configuration that’s the manual load balancing configuration we have. So what I’m saying is, let’s say I have these two devices, and they’re part of, say, VRP or HSRP.

Now we know that one is active and one is on standby. In the case of HSRP and VRP, one is the master and the other is the backup. And suppose you have 1000 users and 1000 clients. Then, obviously, as per the standard configuration, thousands of devices will go through one gateway and be active gateways, so there is no load balancing. Rather, what we can do is create groups. So, as you can see, within VLAN, we create one group and then another, with one group having a higher priority than the other. Obviously, the whip is different, and what you like is different. Similarly, this will be the active load balancer for 500 users, and this will be the active load balancer for 500 users, and they will work as an active active load balancer. Okay? Now, once you have this configuration and want to double-check it, you can check “Show standby.” So in that output, what you will find is that you will go and get the output related to both groups. So here you can see that you can see the first and the second device as active, standby, and active, respectively. This is not a limitation, but rather a feature that allows us to perform manual load balancing across the routers. Alright, so let’s stop here. We’ll do the VRPlab that we have done, like HSRP, and then we’ll check this load balancing methodology as well.

69. VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol Lab

Let us perform the lab task. The same lab setup will go ahead and enable the VRP instead of the HSRP. So let me go and fix the screen. I have VRP; it’s just IP enable on routers one and two, so I can do this thing without standby, say, for ten minutes or something like that. If I can create an interface, it will be fast ethernet and 10 bits. Then I’ll go and remove the HSRP from RNA 3 as well. So first of all, I will go and do the basic configuration. And once I do the basic configuration, then we’ll go and do the load balancing configuration as well. All right, so here we are at router number one. We are at the correct interface. I can go and enable VRRP 10, and we can see what options we have. So I have 10.11.250 as my IP address. And that’s it.

Then we become IP 10. What other things do we have? We can provide authentication, printing, priority, shutdown timers, tracking, and event tracking. So here is what I can do. That VRRP ten and priority—those are the higher priorities. Then we can go check to see if we can show the VRP brief. So here we have the master, and we’ll go to the other side. We can now make this IPS 10 11250. By default, priority will be 100. So you will see that you need to backup. If I go here and check, so the priority, the print, the master, the master address, the group address, we can see that he’s the master. If you go ahead and look, doshow VRP brief is the backup. Okay? So here you can see the master address, the master address, the group address, et cetera. So it is working fine; there’s no problem; it will work. What we want to do here is form two groups. For example, one IP will be one twenty-five zero, and I’ll create two five and one R four, which I will put in one group. R-five, I’ll put you in another group.

So I’ll create two groups, 10 and 20, and let’s do that. So now what I will do is go to R-2. I already have the group that is this; whose priority is this? I will go and create one more. For example, 20. And the IP address is 10 125 1. That will be the clients’ default gateway IP, followed by the VRRP 20. The priorities say, for example, 50, so 150 and en the VRRP I’ll go to R three and VRRP 20 IPS ten1251, and VRRP 20 will be 100 by default, so we can understand this, and that will be the master. Now we can go check, show VRRPbrief so you can see the backup master. And if I come here, and if I check the brief. So here you can see the master backup. So it’s working; the only thing left to do is go to the client and change the gateway address. Everything will look the same. Okay, let’s stop here if you want to see the VRP detail and check like this. You can see that this is the way we can go and do the lab related to VRP.

70. Multicast Basic

Multicasting and multicast routing protocols such as Beam and IGMP must be learned in 3D. So let’s get started. Before we get started with multicast, I’ll give you a quick overview of what multicast is and what multicasting is. Macaddress, the basic stuff related to multicast So we know that there are three types of packets: unicast packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, and even anycast packets. That is the type of communication. So unicast means that there is one-to-one communication, and there are such protocols. For example, OSPF, BGP, EIGRP, and other IGP protocols They are essentially using a destination-based routing protocol, and the Unicorn-based routing protocol is visible. Then we have a broadcast. Broadcast now means “one to all.”

So someone is broadcasting a message to everyone. Then we have an intriguing packet type, multicast, and multicast is one to group. Again, we have any cast; there is one nearby. In this section, obviously, we are going to focus more on multicast. So multicast means that the method of communication is from one group to another. Now, a very important fact is that if we compare the unicast routing protocol with the multicast routing protocol, the basic difference is that with the unicast routing protocol, you are building destination-based routing and doing destination-based routing. In multicast, we are doing source-based routing, which means someone is the multicast source, and then you have the multicast client. Those clients want to join the multicast source feed. That’s the basic difference, and we’ll understand more and more about that. As a result, you must define the group of people who want to join the multicar source. MulticarSource is sending the feed, and we’ll see how the feed is sent.

There are different methodologies, and then on MyHost they want to join the feed. So it’s something like a reverse routing tree we’re creating, and actually this is nothing but RPF; we’ll see that in the next section. But let me still focus on the basics. So let’s continue with the basics. We know that we have class ABCD addresses (224-0023,9255, 255, 255), which are reserved for multicast addresses. Then we have the link that local addresses use as a control mechanism to find their neighbors. So, for example, 22400 is up to twenty-four, zero, zero, two, and fifty-five. Then we have public and private address ranges for multicast. Here you can see all the links’ local addresses. We’ve used a few of them before. For example, OSPF Hello, packets. And then the DrpD selection For that, we have different multi-guest link local addresses, then Rip, then EIGRP, then others as well, right? So the basic question here is that we don’t have multicast Mac addresses in multicast. So the question here is, “How are they framing their multicast Mac address?” We know that the Mac address is 48 bits. So what is happening is that whatever IPV for multicast address we have, they are taking 23 bits from there. And then they are adding 25 bits to this address. So by adding 25 and 23, you will get a 48-bit Mac address. Now, how will it be? So here you can see that this address is obviously in hex. If you convert this to binary, zero means 40, one means zero, zero one, then zero and zero again. Then you have five, then eight, and finally zero.

So now you have eight plus eight plus eight plus one, which means 25 bits. What is happening now is that we are adding the last 23 bits of the IPV4 address. So eight plus eight plus seven That is, up to this point. So if you go add this here, you will get this right. Now, this address, again, if you go and convert it into hexadecimal, So you’ll find 0100. Then you must double-check this. What is this? One, two, four. So that means five. Then there were two, four, eight plus four plus one. Like that. You have to do the calculation. I’ll show you how it’ll look or how it is. You can see here that, finally, it will look like this. So this is the multicast cast packages.And you can see the mathematics for that here. So in decimal, it looks like this in hex. We’re concerned, so we’re looking for hexadecimal Mac addresses. So it will look like this: Okay? Now, while following this methodology, we have one problem. What problem do we have? As an example, consider the address 225. And if you go and convert their Mac address, you’ll find that the Mac address is the same. Why? So again, if you go and take 23 bits here, you can see those 23 bits.

So eight plus eight plus seven and eight plus eight plus seven are common. And again, the first 25 bits are also common because they’re fixed. So, if you add 25 and 23, you’ll get the same Mac address for a different IPV4 multicast address. Now we have that problem. And the truth is that there are five different bits. That means there are 32 multicast IP addresses for which we have a single Mac address. Why? because you have 23 bits. That’s what you’re getting from the IPV-4 address. And then, because multi-gas addresses should start with two to four, So let’s say you have these four fixed bits. So you have these 23 fixed bits and then four fixed bits, and you have five variable bits. That can be anything. And the combination of these five bits can have a 32-bit multicast address. So that’s the problem we have in multicast. But the arrangement of the bids and the IPV for multicast status is such that this is not a bigger issue. So it’s not a big thing in multicast. All right, so these are the basic things that we have discussed, such as what is multicast and what are the address families, how we are going to construct the multicast addresses, and what is the common IPV for multicast addresses we have. So let’s just stop here in this section, and we’ll discuss more about multicast routing.

71. Multicast Protocol IGMP

Let’s talk about the multicast routing protocol or multicast protocol. We have different protocols. We are going to discuss each one one by one. We know that we have a multicast protocol. And if you go look into it, you will discover that, while we have multicast protocol, we still require the IGP interior gateway protocol and the multicast protocol, both of which work together to provide the final multicast feed from the source to the receivers. What protocols do we have? We have protocol-independent multicast, multicast OSPF, distance vectors, multicast routing protocols, and code-based trees. Now, to enable this on Cisco devices, we have to run a command for IP multicast routing.

Again, if we look into PIM, we’ll discover that they have pimps, pass mode, and so on. Different variations are there for that protocol. Now, earlier in this section, we have a study that says they are going to use reverse path forwarding or they are going to look at exactly where my source is. So unlike a destination protocol like OSBA or EIGRP, multicast is going to form the tree, and that tree will be based on the source. So not based on the destination but on the source, they are going to form their multicast tree. That methodology is known as reverse path forwarding. Sometimes you’ll say, “Okay, we have variations of pimps, for example, dense mode.” So we are flooding, and then we are pruning, or we have other methodologies where we are flooding the feeds, and then in whatever link I have, I don’t have the multicast host. We used to prune that because obviously I don’t have the receivers. So why will I flood those feeds at those particular links or locations? Now here you can say that we have different parameters, like S and G source comma groups, and you’ll find a star comma G as well. That is for the Rand debit point. The group indicates that the multicast source is a multicast source. All right. Then upstream and downstream are the concepts. Upstream means that the link is going towards reaching the multicast server or the actual feed. And downstream is where you have the receivers—the link that is going towards the receiver. For example, for router 1, the link here that leads to the multicast source is the upstream, and these interfaces are the downstream. One condition is that you should have a multicast host in the downstream. Otherwise, there is no point in having the downstream if you don’t have any multicast hosts.

Okay, so how is it building the tree? First of all, it will send all the feeds, and in that location where there is no multicast host, they will prune those links and not send the feed on those links. So that’s a flood and a prune. That is the pruning methodology we have. Now here, you can see that we have multicast protocols like PIM OSPF, multicast OSPF, etcetera. Then the other concept we have is IGMP. Now, this is not the PIN, this is not the multicast OSP, et cetera. IGMP is a protocol that is specific to the host or the type of group they want to join on the multicast server or multicast source. Correct. So, for that, we have the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP.And now you can see that you have versions one, two, and three. Now, the most popular are versions two and three. So, what is happening in this case? Remember, if you see this diagram, you’ll find that, okay, you are sending the feed, but you should have interested receivers who will show an interest in that particular multicast feed. Suppose you have three to four different types of sources that are sending the multicast feed; obviously, one host can take only one multicast feed.

So in that regard, there should be membership for that particular source. That’s the key we have. All right, so let’s discuss how this IGMP is working. Now, it’s very easy to enable. You can go and enable the IGMP. Actually, when we go and create the multicast, when we enable the multicast, it should enable, or this multicast is IGMP by default in Cisco switches. But if you want to change the version, then we have a command where you can see that I can go and change the version to the Ipigmp version one. Because no configuration is required to enable IGMP except to enable IP multicast routing, Okay, so let’s try to understand how this IGMP group protocol is working. So, for example, in IGMP version 1, routers send out queries every 60 seconds. Remember, you can see IGMP version one. Routers say your end machine should have a gateway. That means they will connect it to a switch, and the switch will go and connect with the router.

So now that router is the nearby router, the gateway router, which is very near to the host or the receivers. The router is sending a query every 60 seconds in the case of IGMP version one to determine if any hosts need access to a multicast server. So, because the router has built that free router, know that with the help of PIM, he can reach the multicast source. So he is sending the query. This query now has the multicast address 2240 0 1. Now, what is happening after that? Interested hosts must reply with a membership report. That’s important. So far, they are replying with a membership report for that query, stating what multicast group they wish to join. Correct. So the router sends the query, while the host sends the membership report because they simply want to join. Now, there is a problem with ICMP version 1 because it does not allow hosts to dynamically leave a group. Instead of receiving new membership reports every three query intervals, the router keeps sending query, query, query, and if you’re not sending the membership report, the router will conclude, “Okay, these guys are not interested; they have turned off they’re receiving; they have turned off or they are not interested in receiving the feed.”

It’s something like when we are using, say, a radio or FM channel, we tune to a different band, and whatever band we want to use, that particular feed will come and that music will lay on. Assume you’re not interested and don’t want to join any groups, so you won’t respond to the query. This is the case with version one. Now if you go and check version two, you’ll find that there is an enhancement in version two related to leaving messages. So what is happening in version two? The queries are sent from the router as a general query or grouped as a specific query. Furthermore, hosts can send a leave group. So now what is happening with the routers? Instead of a query, they send a group-specific query to the host, and the host says that once they are joined, they will obviously have their membership report while joining or responding to the query. So the host can now say, “I’m not interested, I’m turning off my receiving capability, I don’t want to receive it, then it will be stopped,” because the host can now send a leave message as well. Now all versions of IGMP elect one router to be the designated query for the subnet.

The router with the lowest number has to become the designated again. If you look at the details, suppose I have four or five routers in that group, so they will decide who will send the query to all the hosts and who will receive all the membership reports, and then he will forward that message to the multicast source. Or who is sending the multicast feed? IGMP version one is not compatible with version two. If any IGMP version one outer exists on the network, all routers should be running version one. So versions one and two are not compatible, even in the CCNP core. This lever is to understand version two and version three as well. Now version two is running by default, and it’s in most of the places you’ll find version two, but still in version three we have enhancements. So what enhancements do we have in version three? Version three improves on Version 2 by supporting multicast group source-based filtering. So we now have filtering at the source. Essentially, when a host responds to an IGMP query with a membership report, it can specifically identify which sources within the multicast group to leave, join, or not join.

So that means that we have even more granularity inside version three, where we can do the source-based filtering as well, where you can see that you have multiple sources, then you have the router, who will send the query, and then the host, who will send the membership report. That membership report is nothing more than an indication that they want to or are willing to join. We can deduce from this who the upper stream is. One is the upper stream, and then downstream you have three, two, three, and four, but in four you can see that there is no multicast host. That means the downstream interfaces are two and three; the downstream interfaces are FA two and FA three. How do you go about doing so? By default, version two is up and running. Once IP multicast routing is enabled, you can browse IPMP groups. If you want to have any static groups, you can go and do that. If your IGMP wants to join any specific multicast group, you have both options correct, and suppose you want to filter, so we have the filtering option as well.

Here you can see that I have created access lists for ten and eleven. These are the multicast statuses, and in the IGMP Access group we want to join, only the tenth and eleventh will come, but it will not join. Okay, so let me quickly log into the router, and I’ll show you these configurations in CLI, right? So we have this topology; I’ll go and show you all the commands and configuration in router two. So let me go here into router two, and in router two, what interfaces do we have? We have FA zero, and I’m just showing you the configurations of what it looks like. So first of all, I should go there and enable IP multicast routing, and then I can go to the interface and check the IP IGMP version. Say, for example, that the default version will be there. You can see that you have group interface membership if you check this show IP IGMP. One of the important commands we have is membership. Okay? So at the moment, nothing is there. So that’s why most of the things are empty. I can go here and, okay, let’s see what else we have here. You can see that group interface membership is SSM utlr, so I’ll go ahead to the interface save zero Ipigmp version for example two, and then obviously we are going to check show Ipigmp interface and say FA zero.

These are the important commands. So here you can see that the Internet address for the IGMP is disabled on the interface. Okay, multigast routing is disabled, but if you go ahead and enable the pin, the TTL zero multigastgroup interface will be operational, and you can also check the M route. Check back later. Okay, so I want to join any of the groups; say Ipijnp joins the group. So let me see if I can see here; you can go to the interface, and then you can join the group. As for our example 226, save 510 and leave that source showing IP IGMP interface zero. Here you can see that IGMP is enabled for version two. Version two includes the query interval and the maximum timeout. Okay, so I can see that the join interface is this. Now, I can go back to that interface and use the IPMP join, and if I go ahead and check what options we have, we can also use the static group and say 226, 1511, and then we can see this. All right.

Suppose you want to filter, so you can go and use the filter as well. We can see that the static group is not working. Because if we want to do any manual methods, that time is when we are using the static group. But I’ll go and use the joingroup one more time in the interface. IP interface for 0x0 IGMP should be added to groups 22611, 511, and then 12. So you can see that you have these groups. And now, if you want to filter, you can go and create the access list, then say “permit” these addresses. So I want to permit 10 and 11, and then I want to use this IP IGMP access group set up, and then we can go and verify the output. To demonstrate, once you apply this filter, it will not go and join the other group, even though it is shown in the configuration, but it will go and join the other group, whatever is not mentioned in the ACL list. Alright, so let’s stop here.

72. Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)

PIM, or protocol independent multicast, is the next important topic. Now, here, you can see that PIM has variation. It can operate in three modes: dense, fast, and sparse. Dense mode—that’s the Cisco property. Now we should understand why dense mode exists and what applications it serves. And then there’s pass mode. Dense mode is something like you doing the flood, and the prune method means you have the multicast source. He is flooding the multicast traffic throughout the network. And then the receivers, if you have receivers, will join that. If you don’t have receivers, you will get proof. Correct? But what is happening in this password is that it’s an intelligent way of doing the flood and prune methods. In this case, you have a single authority known as a “run debut point” (RP). So what will happen is that the RP will get selected, and now it’s the responsibility of the debut point or the RP to do the flooding in the network. So it’s as if you’re saving bandwidth; you’re being selective across the network. You know who has the authority to prune the floodlands to build the multicast tree, right? So in this way, we can save bandwidth. We will not unnecessarily flood the multicast traffic throughout the network. So it’s a bandwidth-severe methodology that’s efficient. But, once again, there is the question of when to use the dense mode and when to use the fast mode. So you can see that the key point is that we are going to use the dense mode.

So suppose, in a network, we have a large number of multicast hosts. So in that case, actually, it’s very easy. So everyone will send the multicast feed, and then pruning will happen. It’s very easy. And you can think that if you want to compare, you can compare that. So, say, rip versus OSPF repis something on the router and then issue a network command. but OSPF defines the area limit. The LSS does things in an efficient manner. They will perform the SPF calculations, to be sure, but the password and the thing is that you are doing it efficiently. However, when you have a limited number of multicast hosts, both have advantages; both have disappeared, but it is recommended that we use this pass mode at least in the enterprise network. All right? So, in PM dense mode, you can see that the multicast source is sending the feed all throughout the network, eliminating the need to host multicast receivers. So you will go and do the pruning. So here, you can see that. Now, finally, we have the tree structure that is built towards the receiver sender and receiver source and receivers. This is the dense mode; it is easy to use and very easy to build, but it consumes bandwidth. Now, the next we have the sparse mode. In sparse mode, suppose you have two multicarrier sources here. Who is going to send the feed? First of all, they will go and select the random point. So here you can see how the selection of RP will happen.

Once you have a selection of RP rendezvous points, then it’s the responsibility of RP to send the feed to the selected interfaces where you have the multicast receiver. Obviously, this is the most efficient way to build and manage and maintain the multicast routing or multicast feed. Great. You can see how we can enable them now that you have versions one and two. You can go to the interface, and then we have options. Either we are running Pin in the dense mode, the sparse mode, or the sparse dance mode. Now you have this RP option as well, so RP can be identified manually. Suppose this is your RP; you can go ahead and run the manual command. And we have the auto-RP feature in Cisco as well. So if you want to do it manually, the command is IPM RP, address 192-1681. Once again, if you have the multicast source, So these are the feeds; we can go and create the ACL. And with the RPM, we can go and map this ACL entry. So this is something we have seen earlier as well, in the previous section, when we created the ACL just to limit the number of multi-car sources. And then, if you want, you can map with the RP as well. Okay, next comes the verification and troubleshooting command. So we can go and check your Ipigmp groups, show Ipigmp neighbors, and show IPP P who is the RP. Then we have the debug command: debug IP IGMP, debug IP PM. OK, so let’s do one thing, Alexis: stop here, and in the next section, you’ll continue from here. And then I’ll show you these CL commands in the DNS lab as well.

73. Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) Verification

Let’s continue. So we have some commands to do the verification and debugging as well. Once you build the multicast tree, then we can go and check the IPM route. We have already discussed the source comma group entry. We also have the upper stream and downstream interfaces if you have run to the point of finding a star-comma-g entry. Suppose if you go and run through IPM in dense mode, you’ll see the output like this: So here you can see that you have the source, and then you have the multicast group address, the uptime, the incoming interface, and the outgoing interface. Who is your RPF reverse path forwarding neighbor? And here you can see the interfaces. Okay, so there is a flag as well. Assume that if no flag is specified, this is gens mode. And if you go and check the flag, let me show you the IPM route. And here you can see the flag issuing from SC. This is for the sparse mode. Okay? And you can see a Star magazine entry for the random point. So if you are running the multicast in sparse mode, then you will see output like ill see So there are some notes as well. You can go and check the upstream and downstream interfaces. Notice that the SG pairing is labelled as a star-comma-g entry. In this pass mode, we can have multiple-source sharing with the same multicast fee. The roundup point is ten, 1110. The flag is SC. This indicates that Route is in pass mode. Then you can determine who is the outgoing and who is the incoming interface.

So it’s just like dense mode. The incoming interfaces indicate the upstream, which means where is your multicast source? The downstream interface is shown on the outgoing interface. Your receivers are located there. All right, so let me quickly log into the lab, the same lab we have. And I’ll run through a few of the important commands—just to know that the commands are supported and what types of commands we can run in the P mode. Let me go ahead and start this lab again. I’m going to Room 2. We have done some testing. I’ll proceed to R 3 and then inside R 3. First of all, we should go and enable IP multi-cost routing. That’s the first command. Then I can go to the interface, and we can go and run IP PIM. And here you can see the mode. So we have dense mode. We have a sparse mode called sparse dance mode. Here you can see sparse mode, sparse mode, and dense mode. So let me go and use this dance mode. When we run the dance mode, you can see that Dr has been replaced by the neighbor.

So I can go check my IP neighbors and show them my IP. Actually, this command is quite useful. Display IP Neighboring It will show whoever is your neighbor, and you can even go and check the interfaces as well. Okay, so now you can see the Dr. and Dr. priority list next. What we can do to make that happen Assume you want to go check the RP, you can sign that RP address. As a result, I can access the IP, PIM, and RP addresses. What is that address? 192-1681 one. We can also provide the ACL. I’ll show you the ACL formation in this command. For example, grant ACL ten and then permit 22671 one, etc. And then I can go and assign this to the IPPMRPS address. Okay, so these are the commands that we can go and run. We can go back and see what commands we used in relation to PIM and RP. Okay, so we have enabled the P maintenance mode, and then we have enabled the RP as well. If you want to check the IPM route, you can go and check like this. All right, so you can see that all the addresses that we have given have a star, “Gentry,” and you can see the flag as well. Now the flag is telling us that we are running SJC. So, obviously, stand for spas. Then we have the flag J and C J standing for the street to join.

 You have a small S as well. You have a big S as well. C is connected. We know that we have one interface here. So you can see that PIM is enabled, pinversion is 2, and everything related to PIM is enabled. I can create this dense mode now. Remember, whenever we are doing, say, IP PIM in dense mode, okay? So there is no RP selection at that time, but for the time being, we will go and provide the RP address. So here you can see that you are seeing all this randomness, and that’s the reason we are seeing this. So what I’ll do here is go quickly and remove this statement and this statement, and again I will go to interface F zero zero IPP indents mode and interface zero slash. Let me see what interface we have. Nothing else is required because the interface is in IPP-fordense mode. Simply put, if you run that many commands, that is sufficient for me to check show IP M route. And since this is running in dense mode, you will see that I should clear this, clear IP.So you can see that VRF is the M. We don’t have VRF related to that.

I just wanted to clear these multi-car cars entry. All right, so I have cleared the entries, and now I can see that we have the DC day for October 10th because we have enabled this feature on router two as well. And, as you can see, we’re getting feeds from router two. So if I go and check if I have some configuration related to IGMP and all, So you can see that he is willing to join the IGMP group. We have some access protection as well. And those entries are actually getting here, but the ideal concept behind this is that we have the D comma C entry, and now if I go and assign the RP so I-P-P-M Preaddress one, and then you can see the flag will change to Spas if you go and check the camera. So it is changing from dense to sparse mode. Alright, so let’s stop here.

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