CompTIA Security+ SY0-601 Topic: 2.2 Virtualization and Cloud Computing Concepts Part 1
December 13, 2022
  1. IaaS

In this video, I’m going to be talking about infrastructure as a service and a cloud service model. So let’s get started. So if you have been living under a rock, then you probably don’t know what cloud computing is. But if you’ve been living in the open pin world, I’m sure you’ve heard of cloud computing. You’ve probably read or heard about cloud computing in other classes, particularly infrastructure as a service, platform as a service, and software as a service. In this course, I’m actually going to show you what they look like.

We are going to set up some virtual machines in the AWS cloud. It will provide you with a thorough understanding of what this is. Now remember that the cloud is just storing your data in other people’s systems. What’s the cloud? Other people’s computers That’s really all it is. So in particular, we’re going to be using Amazon, right? So we’re going to use Amazon as their computers, and we’ll be using it. So let’s get started here. So we’ve got three deployment models. I’m sorry, there are three service models for the deployment models. Three service models are discussed in another video. We’re going to need to know this for our exam. That’s going to be infrastructure as a service, platform as a service, and software as a service. The other one that’s mentioned in our exam is going to be anything as a service.

We’ll come to that one later. So in this video, what is “platform as a service, what is it?So platform as a service is the key term for your exempt cloud service provider. They are the ones that are going to give you the service, such as AWS, Microsoft Azure, or Google Cloud. So infrastructure as a service is when the cloud provider will give you the hardware, such as the switches and routers. They’ll maintain the Internet connection. They’ll maintain everything needed to basically run the hardware. And all they’re going to do is give you a virtual machine with an operating system, and you have to take care of the rest of it yourself. So what I’m going to do is set this up. Now remember, infrastructure is a service. They’re giving you everything up to the operating system. So they’re giving you the whole hardware stack. They’re basically giving you the service. Sorry, it’s not the service. They’re going to give us the virtual service.

They’re going to give us a virtual service, given that you have the hardware—the processors, the hard drive, the RAM. Then they’re going to give you the actual networking gear, which is the switches and the routers, and of course, the giant Amazon facility that keeps all these machines cool. So remember, all we’re doing is setting up a virtual server. Let’s go take a look at it. You know what, before I start, you should go get this and practise it. Watch me through this video when I’m finished. Go and practise this. Because if you’re not studying cloud computing today, you’re doing something wrong. You guys should go and get yourself an AWS account. It is free. What I’m about to do is absolutely free.

We’re going to set up a Windows server in the cloud for free that we could use. It may not be the fastest thing and only have a gig of RAM in it, but you know what? It’s free to use. You could go set it up. You can tank Mr. Benzo, Pozo, or whatever. Later on, I believe you pronounce his name as “Benzo.” So I want you guys to go set this up for free. Come back, but watch me do the video. Set it up, and then you two can practice. Okay? So, in order to get there, we’ll go to AWS, or And what you guys are going to do is you’re not going to sign in, but you’re going to go, and you’re going to click on—actually, no, I click sign in to a console. I’m already signed in. All right. Actually, you know what? Let me open up my Edge browser here, and then we’ll go right there. So if we go to AWS on, we’ll just go right here and say, “Create an AWS account.” Notice mine was signed in because I’ve already logged in.

So you would say, “Create an AWS account.” and you just fill out the information. Once again, it’s completely free. All right. There are a lot of restrictions, but most of the services we could use and practise for our purposes were free of charge. We can set up a whole bunch of virtual machines absolutely free, which is great because I run some websites on another account that I have that I’m not going to disclose to you, but we do run some websites on the free one, just some practise things that we run. All right, so this is good stuff. You know what? Let me go back to what I want to do. So when you log in, this is what it looks like. This is the AWS console. So what I’m going to do is create an instance.

Now, I’ve already done it. I’m going to walk you guys through the step. It does take a few minutes to set up these virtual machines, and I’ll show you how to access them. There are going to be some passwords and stuff like that. We’re going to have to type it in. But let me show you what I mean. So I’m going to go here to where it says, “Launch a virtual machine.” All right? So we’re going to create an infrastructure as a service that Amazon is going to give us.

So we’re going to say, “Launch a virtual machine,” and we have to choose, right?” So notice that these are all free. So we could do Amazon Linux. We could do a free Red Hat system. Sus right. If you want to do Ubuntu, we could do Bounties. I did the A+ course. Before it was there, we had to install a visa. and you don’t want that. You can just put it right here. It would be great. You know what? We’ll just do a free Windows Server base. This is easy to set up. So I’m going to click on this one here. I’m going to say select. Okay, so notice we do have a free tier.

Now, with the free tier, you’re not getting much, right? You get one virtual CPU, but only one gigabyte of RAM. Network performance is low to moderate, and they’re not going to give you a lot of bandwidth. But remember, it’s free here, okay? If you want more, there are different tiers that you can pay for. But this is fine for us. We’re going to click “review” on launch. So it says this year, “Here we have one CPU, one gig of RAM, and slow network performance.” That’s fine for us. It’s still pretty quick, though. And then I’m just going to go ahead and click on “Launch.” So in here, you have to choose a key pair. So we’re going to create a new keeper. Here are the key pairs: Essentially, you will be creating a key pair. Let’s call this server 2019. Let’s call this a plus. Why? because it’s a security plus. And I’m going to say something like, “Download key here.” And what this does is create a public-private key combination that we’re storing here.

You see this file that I downloaded? I need to save this file because it will be required when I try to log into this machine. So I’m going to go ahead and click “Launch instance.” And okay, so it’s creating it now, and this is going to take a few minutes. Okay? This is going to take a few minutes to get done. Look at how it says it’s been launching. Give it a few minutes. Now that this is over, we’re going to watch it now. Let’s go to view instances. Now here’s the thing: I already have one of these instances running. So I’ve already done this before. I know you can see the public IP, but I’m going to go ahead and make the password file we’ll need. I’ll show you how to use it. So this is the instance that’s being created right now. Actually, it’s done. You can see how fast I was as I watched it being completed. Here’s the one that I created a few minutes ago, before the video started. You know what? I’ll just click on the one I created.

So I clicked on it. It is now operational. And this is an actual virtual machine in the Amazon Cloud. So this is exactly what infrastructure services are. If you want to actually see it, I’m going to click on Connect, and then I’m going to go to RDP Client. Now here’s the thing: You see, if I say “get password,” it’s going to tell me to give it that file. Remember that file? This file is right here. And I have one for my old one. So I’m going to click on “browse.” And here I have it. Now when I say “decrypt password,” what it’s going to do is show me the password that I don’t want to show you guys. So I’ll come back here, click “decrypt password,” and copy this password, okay? And then there’s another link there that says “Download Remote.” I don’t trust you guys. We’re going to say, “Download the remote desktop file.” and I’m going to click on that. And then I’m going to click “connect.” And you know what happens when I click connect, when I click connect? Let me just go back here because I don’t want you guys to see what I’m doing.

In any case, it’s not a disparate; you’ll get it. You just practise this, okay? So when I click Connect, it prompts me for the Remote Desktop credential, right? Actually, you know what? I could show that to you. So what I did download was this thing. I made a remote desktop connection to it. When I click Connect, it wants me to enter the password that I’m not going to show. You notice how long that thing is? And when I say okay, yup, I’ll say yes. And look at that. This is a virtual machine in the Amazon Cloud, okay? This is my personal virtual machine in the Amazon cloud. and it’s basically a regular Windows machine. I could put whatever I wanted on it. Now here’s the thing: Now I’m responsible for this machine. You see, in infrastructure services, I become responsible. I have to maintain any errors, problems, or anything like that. Basically, I’m responsible.

Unless there’s something wrong with the hardware section, the physical hardware section, If Ram is getting destroyed or the hard drive is blowing out, that is going to be Amazon’s fault. However, this is my computer. I now manage this machine. So this is basically what infrastructure services are. They’re basically giving you access to the virtual operating system, and then you have to put everything else you want on it. So, if I want to make a web server out of this, I would have to install IIS, the Internet Information Services, which comes with Windows. I would have to put together my own databases. I would have to install the application and maintain it. And I’m responsible for all of that. Okay? So, hopefully, you have a good time doing this. Please go and try this. Go right now and set up an infrastructure service. Go to Amazon, create your free AWS account, and create a virtual machine like I just did here. Launch it. See how it works. The only way for you to learn this is to do it. 

  • PaaS

In this video, I’m going to be talking about “platform as a service,” another one of these service deployment models here in cloud computing. So in this particular one, we previously talked about infrastructure as a service. You saw how I set up a Windows server on AWS. We’re going to set up an application environment in this one. Platform as a service is when the cloud provider gives you basically the operating system, the applications, and the stack of things needed to run an application. For example, if you’re installing PHP for a PHP-based web application, you’ll need an operating system as well as the PHP stack installed on it.

So, in this scenario, if you only want to run a web application and don’t want to manage the operating system, databases, and the actual software itself—not your software, but the server side software—get Platform as a Service. So Platform as a Service is going to be for when you just have an app that you just need to run. So this one here is pretty easy to set up also, just like how you would—I’m assuming you guys did go and get an AWS account. Remember, it’s free of charge. What I’m doing here is also perfectly free also. So you guys could try this. All right, so let’s go set this up here.

So I’ve logged in to my AWS console, and the last time we did this right, we did the virtual machine one. In this one, we’re going to say “build a web application.” So I’m going to click here. Now Amazon’s platform is a service. So we’re going to click on this, and I have a couple of these things here already running already. And when you click on it, it asks, “OK, what would you like to do?” So this is going to create the entire environment for us. So let’s say we have a PHP app that I want to be used for security plus, and I don’t need any application tags, which just makes it hard to find. This is the part where I wanted to show it to give you the entire platform. So I want you guys to keep an eye on that Docker page where it says Docker platform.

I’m going to talk about that a little bit later in another video. But have you noticed how you can choose the type of application—perhaps a Java-based application, a PHP-based application, or a Python-based application? So let’s say it was a Python-based application you were running. You have the ability to select what version of Python you want. Maybe it’s a 3.7 and the platform version is there. Now, do you want to upload your code now? So if you’ve written your code, you can upload it now, or you can just use the sample code that they’re going to give us. I’m going to say “create an application.” And that’s it. That’s as hard as it gets. So it creates the environment. This is going to take a few minutes.

So what I did was to already have one running, okay? So I’ve done one already. So we don’t have to sit here and wait for Amazon to create it. First, I’m going to go back here, and I have one here called a PHP application. Basically the same thing that we selected and this is what it looks like when it’s done. Okay, so this is what it looks like, and you can go ahead and connect to it. You can start using it. If you have your application and you’re ready to deploy it, you would just click “upload” and “deploy” and choose the file that will contain the codes for your application. I’m going to go in here, and I’m going to go here, and I’m going to say you could say load configuration or save configuration. One thing I do want to mention here is something called a clone environment. If you have multiple instances of these apps running, you can actually clone this entire environment and recreate it. So you can run many apps on this device.

Now don’t forget, this is all here for free to set up, but the moment we start to use it, it’s going to start costing us. Amazon needs to make money too, right? Okay, so here is our application. easy enough to do. Okay, so yes, you can see platforms as a service, and there are many others that are out there, but I think Amazon is one of the most popular ones. If you have a web application you’re running and you don’t want to deal with the server setup, the database setup, and all that good stuff, then this is an easy one to use. It’s going to cost you. But you know what? Sometimes the money is not worth the headache. All right? There’s a lot of interesting information here. a platform as a service that is still active.

  • SaaS, XaaS

In this video, I’m going to be talking about software as a service and something else called X as a service, or anything as a service. So let’s get started. So in the previous videos, we talked about infrastructure as a service, and we talked about platform as a service. And finally, here we are with software as a service. Now, software as a service is the easiest of them to deploy it.

You’re not really deploying anything; you’re just logging in and using it. You guys are probably very familiar with “software as a service,” because if you use Google Docs, that’s basically “software as a service.” So software as a service is when the provider gives you the full-fledged application. If you remember, in platform as a service, we were able to get it up to the platform where we could just load our codes or applications. If you recall the infrastructure service, we essentially just got a working computer. As an example, I had a functional Windows server with software as a service.

Now we have the app. All we have to do is plug it in and use it. Think of Google Docs or Office 365. QuickBooks Online and Salesforce are examples of this. I’ll show you right now. So here’s Microsoft Word online. Excel online. If you’re using Google Docs online, I actually use this a lot. This is very good to me, and I’ll tell you why. because I can sync so many things. I like to write documents; you guys know that I write books and stuff, and I actually write them here. And I could be editing it on my computer, and then I could be picking it back up on my phone when I leave. And then I’m back in bed, typing on a tablet, returning to my desktop, and everything is perfectly synced up. But it’s not just Microsoft Word, because you can get Excel from here also. So I could say there is a brand new Excel sheet.

So I prefer this. And this is comparable to Google Docs. This is software as a service. Notice how they are giving me everything. I don’t need to install anything, right? If I want a CRM, for example, I could go to Salesforce, which is a very famous software service for CRM that businesses use to manage their leads, try to book their clients, and so on. So when managing these particular things, all the administrator has to do is make sure the bills are paid and the customers know how to use them because the provider takes care of everything else. Now there are points where you have to configure it. So, for example, in Salesforce, you may have to go in there and configure it to match your organization’s settings, but generally, you have good support that will help you. OK? And finally, we’re going to talk about something called XaaS.

This is known as anything provided as a service. Now, anything as a service is where you have different debt, x is replaced, or different things in place of that X. So we already talk about three things: infrastructure, platform, and software as a service. But then there are many other of these things that are available. You have desktop as a service, database as a service, storage as a service, communications as a service, and malware as a service. So this X can be replaced by anything. identity as a service. That’s when you’re probably familiar with identity as a service, which is what Google does. Google allows other websites to use Google’s authentication system to log in using open authentication. You’re probably seeing this; you’re probably going to a website where you could log in with your Gmail, right? It says to log in with your Gmail account and your Facebook account. That’s its identity as a service. You also have desktop as a service. That’s another one. This one I’ll show you.

This one is something that I’ve been thinking about getting. This is Amazon’s workspace. This is a desktop computer. Desktop, as you can see to the right, is a service. In essence, Amazon allows you to rent a desktop computer. So it comes with all the configuration needed, and it’s basically a virtual machine that you connect it to the same way I connected to that server. And your entire organisation could be contained within a single small environment. Everybody just uses these virtual desktops. This is becoming very, very popular. As you can see, there are numerous other services available. But the three main ones—platform, infrastructure, and software service—are the ones you’re going to need to know for your exam.

  • Cloud Deployment

In this video, we’re going to be talking about the cloud deployment models and the service models. Let’s get started. The cloud deployment models basically describe how the cloud is deployed. How cloud technologies are being deployed to consumers and how they will be used So there are four of these: public, private, community, and hybrid. Once again, public, private, community, and hybrid Let’s go through them one by one. The first deployment model is going to be a public model. In this one, anyone in the public can access it from the public. Think of Dropbox, OneDrive, or your Google Drive. These are stored on public clouds, which you and anyone else in the public can access. The other one is a private cloud. Only the organization that created the private cloud has access to it.

So let’s say the Technical Institute of America here makes its own cloud system with its own data center. But we’re not going to make it available to the public. Only we will use it. It’s a private cloud. A community cloud is formed when multiple organizations come together to form a cloud system that they’re going to use. So let’s say the Technical Institute of America teams up with another school. Let us call it a school. School A? As a result, they have School A and Tia US collaborate to form a cloud that we will use to deliver our courses to our students. That would be a type of community cloud. The other one is a hybrid. So many organizations, especially really big ones, will have their own private cloud, and they’re going to be using the public cloud at the same time. That’s basically a hybrid. In other words, they combine multiple deployment types.

  • Cloud Application terms

In this video, we’re going to be going over some additional cloud terminology you’re going to need to know for your exam. So some of these terminologies are pretty easy to understand. Some of them are going to be a little bit more complex. Why? because they’re emerging technologies and they’re not widely known yet. But as the world progresses and as IoT devices start to grow, you’ll hear more about them. So some of these you may not have heard about, and some of these you probably did. Let’s get started. So the first thing we’re going to talk about is something called an MSP, a managed service provider. Mike managed security. Service provider.

So MSPs are basically going to be third-party companies that work with small businesses or even mid-sized and large companies in order to do their work for them. Let’s say you own a small business and you have your workstations, your service, your switches, and your routers, but you don’t want to deal with the management of them. So you hire an IT company to come in, and they take your desktop, the service, and the workstations. That would be an MSP, right? They’re a managed service provider that manages all your services when it comes to cloud computing. If you build applications and you want to deploy them to the cloud, an MSP can take care of that for you, as they would be the ones managing all the AWS if you saw me go in there and set up the AWS. So that would be an example; maybe hire me to do it. By the way, don’t hire me to do that. If you hire me to do it, that would be an MSP.

The other one is a managed security provider. This one you can hire me for first. So organizations call me up and say, “Hey, Andrew, can you manage our security for us?” Can you help write security policies? Can you determine how to configure firewalls? Can you determine whether the security of our cloud is sufficient? This is a managed security service provider, or MSSP. So this is when you hire a third party to manage your security services. Okay? The other terminal I have is going to be what’s known as “on premises” and “off premises,” or “on premises” versus “off premises.” So what exactly is that?

So, on-premises and off-premises. So on-premises is basically data stored in your organization. Off-premises is cloud computing, where you store data in somebody else’s data center, like Amazon. So, for example, if I open up my OneDrive Here’s my OneDrive, and I take this file, called Web goat, and the files on my desktop right here. So this is on my premises. If I take it and move it into this one drive folder, now it’s synced up there. Now it’s in the cloud. That web go file in that folder is now being stored off-site in Microsoft data centers near Azure’s data centers. So that would be off-prem. If I put it back here, that would be on premises. All right, see how long you do that; that was okay. The next topic we’re going to take a look at is going to be two things: fog computing and edge computing. So I’m going to draw some diagrams for this because this is going to be a little complex. So let’s talk about exactly what edge computing is. So, to understand edge computing, first of all, you have to understand a network. So let’s say that in the center of your network, you have service.

The service is where all of the network’s processing, all of the heavy duties, all of the databases, all of the main computing power for those databases, your emails, everything is processed. And on the network, you’re going to have a variety of edges that come out of it. Perhaps you have workstations here. You might have Iota devices over here, and this is where things get tricky with Iota devices. You might find mobile phones here, okay, PHONES mobile phones. On this end, you’re going to have other client devices. Maybe you have laptops stored here. Now, what I want to concentrate on is right here. So you see, edge computing is when you tell these Iota devices and things like mobile phones to do the computing themselves and don’t send the data back to the server. You see, in traditional environments, the Iota devices don’t have enough CPU power to send it back to the server.

So this is known as the “edge of the network,” right, where the client is interacting with the devices themselves. Edge computing is becoming more popular as the cloud is being introduced to all of these Iota devices. Now, just for your reference, if you’re not sure, Iota stands for “Internet of Things.” The “Internet of Things” is all the miscellaneous and millions of devices that connect to the Internet nowadays. Like what? Well, let me see. I’m going to wake up in the morning, and I’ll go through a list of Iota. Your pillow can connect to the Internet. Your bed, your shoes, your toothbrush Yes, they do have one of those. Your toothbrush. Then I go to the kitchen. Your coffee maker, your fridge, your printer, and your stove You go downstairs to work and, of course, to your car. This is the Internet of Things, with self-driving cars and everything. So what edge computing is, then, is giving those Iota devices the ability to process the data themselves. So computing means processing. So in edge computing, basically the devices on the edge of the network are doing the processing.

Now, why is that so important? Well, because of latency, you see, without edge computing, the Iota device would have to send the data back to the servers in order for it to be processed. Take, for example, a camera system. All right? Imagine a camera system like you would have on these CCTVs, these network cameras that you may have installed in your offices or in your house. Consider a modern camera system that simply sends video to a server via coax cable.

But now with these NVRs (network video recorders), basically these particular ones, the cameras themselves, have a little processing in them. So, now that the cameras are watching the space, and they’re only going to record when there’s movement, what happened? So before they would have to send all that video back to the server, the server would process the video, see that there’s movement, and then decide not to record it. But now, why not just push the process into the camera itself to determine whether there’s someone there or not to the camera itself?

So now the camera itself is doing the processing to determine if there’s somebody there and whether to record it or not. This is just an example of edge computing, right? So edge computing means having the IoT devices do it. Another popular topic, and where you’ll hear about it, is self-driving cars and reducing latency in them. So take, for example, a self-driving car. Imagine how much processing power and how much processing and data are needed for a self-driving car to drive with all these cameras and sensors around it. Imagine if it had to connect to a cloud server, okay? So, imagine a car driving down the road, and there’s a cloud server here in Amazon. And there’s a huge latency between these devices.

If this car has to wait for the Amazon servers to process the signals in front of it, whether to slow down, stop, or change lanes, it would take too long; the latency would be too much between the car and the cloud server. So what we need to do is push the process and power back to the car, allowing them to make the decision themselves at that moment and maybe later upload the data to the cloud service. So edge computing basically gives these IoT devices the ability to do their own processing. So that brings me to another topic, fog computing. So, we have this layer of fog computing, right? We have the servers, the IoT, and the phone. So fog computing is very similar to edge computing.

Cloud computing adds another layer to IoT devices as a result of this. So let’s start a new one here. So here’s what happens: So you have your processing here; you have your service; and then, at the bottom, you have the IoT devices that are going to be doing the processing themselves. So you go ahead and add another layer here. This is what we call the fog. The fog layer is where you’re going to do the processing. And this is basically connecting these IoT devices to the server. This also helps to reduce latency. So they’re basically very similar. However, the fog has a separate layer known as a fog layer that aids in the processing of IoT devices. OK, so we talked about fog computing and edge computing. The next thing I’m going to talk about is thin clients. Now, thin clients are basically computers that are very small and just connect to a virtual desktop.

So you can have a computer that’s very small, maybe smaller than my Sonic, which is also on my desk here. Can I take this out of here? Yeah, I guess we can just disconnect it. Imagine a computer that’s as small as this. It’s a little box like this—not the Sonic wall, but a little box like this. And what it does is that it has a small amount of RAM and processing power, and when you turn it on, it turns your remote desktop into a virtual server somewhere. Regardless of whether you host it or Amazon does. Remember how I set up that Amazon server that you saw there? Let’s go to Google here. HP, which I know sells these devices, is a good example of them.

And they’re not going to have a lot of CPU power in them; they’re not going to have a lot of RAM in them. And basically, let’s go do this one. This is $348. So here is a cloud, and here is a thin client. You can see how small it is, and you basically just connect a keyboard and a video, so it has a VGA port. You make the connection. It also has some DVI ports on it. You connect this thing, and all it does is basically boot up and remote desktop into a desktop that’s already set up with all the processing power. Now, organizations are moving more and more towards this. When you look at the description, you can see that it doesn’t have a lot of RAM. It is powered by DDR-4 RAM. Yes, but look at this thing. It’s only 1.8 inches wide. But look at how slow that 1.5 GHz processor is. It’s not very fast at all because the processing is not done on this box.

The processing notice says “thin client.” The processing is going to be done on that server and stored there, like in AWS. Okay, so this is a thin client. Okay. The following term is containers, specifically Docker containers. So I’m not going to get too much into this because this is a rabbit hole. I thought about doing a whole video on this, but then I realized, you know what, it’s going to be too much for these guys to digest. I’m going to explain it to you guys, and you guys can then explore it from here. Because of Docker, I use a lot of different containers, and Docker basically saves a lot of time in setting up virtual machines and running different websites and whatnot. Let me just explain it to you, and I’m going to show you where to get it. And then you can go down that rabbit hole if you’re looking for that. This is an all-night thing. I was planning on doing a 12-, 12-, or 15-minute video where I was going to show it to you.

But believe me, it’s way beyond the scope of your exam. All you need to know is what it is. So first of all, what’s a container? A container is a very small instance of an operating system running on top of another operating system. So let me give you an example. So you have the “core” of the operating system, correct? This is the kernel of the operating system. So what Docker does is allow you to use this kernel and then run other instances of the operating system. In other words, you’re virtualizing most of it except the core itself. You see, if you go and set up a virtual machine, you’re basically reinstalling the core of the OS instead of installing the whole operating system.

Docker is like, “You know what? Instead of these containers, Docker is the software that does it.” To set this up, basically all you have to do is install Docker and then run instances of the operating system. So you can run an instance of, say, Boonty, an instance of Santos, an instance of Divian, and all of the different operating systems that are available. So I’m going to show you what this is. And again, I’m not going to go down this rabbit hole here. So here is Docker, and basically you could download this and install it. Now, you could do it on Windows, but it’s best to do it. Doing this on Windows is a pain. To do it on Windows, it’s free. Okay? You don’t need to pay for pricing. But you could download Docker for Windows, and then you could start booting up. You can start installing instances of Linux very quickly. I’m talking about seconds.

You can start installing instances of Linux very quickly using Docker. And there is the Docker hub, where you can search for these instances and just download them. So I’m going to go to the Docker hub here, and I can search for, say, Red Hat. You can come in here and do different searches for what you’re looking for. You know what? I should have searched for Fedora. That’s what I should have searched for. Go back here; let’s go to Docker. Here we go, exploring. Here’s what I’m looking for: So if I go in here now and say, “Maybe I’m looking for a particular operating system,” So far, we have 10 million downloads on Boonton. Here you go with the Fedora I was looking for, where I should have typed “door” and “I wear a hat.” Okay? So you’d come in here and simply click on these. And then you would go into the Docker software.

You just type this command, and it installs it for you. It’s as easy as that is. This would be a Docker container. Okay, moving on. The last thing we want to talk about here, guys, is something called micro services and APIs. So, in previous videos, we discussed APIs. APIs are going to connect your application to another application. So it’s that middleman connecting the expedient website to the American Airlines database, right? The API is going to be the middleware that connects my weather application on my phone to the National Weather Service. The API allows multiple apps to start connecting, exchanging, and talking with data. We use APIs all the time. The whole cloud uses APIs, almost all of it, because when you’re making an app, you’re always pulling data from different apps or different data sources.

How does your app pull data sources from other things using APIs? Now there are two of them: rest and soap APIs. You don’t need to go into that for your exam. Now, one term that you should be familiar with is the other term that’s mentioned: something called micro services. This is a very interesting thing because—let me explain to you—what are monolithic services or monolithic applications? To understand micro services, you must first understand monolithic applications. A monolithic application is an application that is built as a whole, OK? All of its little services, its little components, and all of its little features are built as one giant application. So take, for example, Netflix and Hulu. These are all micro services. Now, let’s say Netflix has many, many little components. They have a search component.

They have a catalogue listing component. They have a payment component. They have an authentication component. They have a rating component. They have descriptive components. They have little components, right? Assume you’re in charge of Netflix. This is going to be one giant application. So all of it begins to see if you’re programming it as one, which means it’s all linked up, right? One large app, one monolithic app The issue with monolithic applications is that they cannot accommodate changes. You think about this. If you have one giant application, then if somebody wants to change this little section, maybe they want to change the way that you search for movies. Maybe they want to change the way it’s listed when you search for it.

Maybe they want to change the way the rating system works now because it’s linked up with all the different codes that affect this code. It affects this code. It’s almost impossible to change. Not to mention that the whole thing would have to be written in one language. So what is “Micro Services”? Micro Services are this; we no longer require them. Micro services are basically when you take that giant application and instead of having one big box, you start to break it into little pieces. So you could say that one service is the search, and another is the ratings. One service would be the financial part of it, where they charge a credit card for one part of it to be user management. What can I make of this other one? I got ratings, I got service, I got search, and maybe the listing and catalogue movies were stored. Now you have little, tiny services that are running.

Now what happens here is that they can all be written in different languages, and basically they combine to form one giant application now. So you can have programmers here, programmers here, and it basically becomes more agile. So you can change and improve in pieces while not affecting the whole. This is the concept of micro services, and almost all applications today are built using it. This falls into the category of making programmers more agile. You guys know I’m a big PMP person, a big project management person. This is how we do agile, because now we can consistently change and improve our applications without affecting other parts. We don’t have to worry about the whole thing going offline. OK, I know we covered a lot of terms in this video, but make sure to review this video. Make sure to take some notes, as I was going through it really quickly for just a review. I can’t remember having covered so much in this video. Where am I? Here. So we talked about MSP. That sounds like such a long time. How long is this video? 20 minutes.

Now we’re going in. Okay, so we talked about MSP. Those are going to be providers who are going to be outside of the organization. We discussed the differences between having the data here and having it with the cloud provider. interesting discussion on fog and edge computing, remember? Very similar. However, this is when the process is stripped, when the processing power is returned to the Iota devices rather than being sent to the cloud. We talk about thin clients, right? Thin clients are going to be these little computers that connect to the cloud for virtual desktop containers like Docker. Please go down that rabbit hole and look up Docker one day. You’re going to have a lot of fun learning that. And then we just talk about micro services and APIs and how we break down the services. All right? There’s a lot of interesting stuff here. A lot of these things are rabbit holes that you can go down and learn a lot more about. But this is all you need to know for your exam.

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