73. 1.6 Starts…
Now we reach to section one six analyze cloud service deployment model NISD 801 four five. Now, if you want the detailed document related to this NIST 801-4-5, you can do a little bit of Googling and you will get the cloud-related NIST document. I have taken a snapshot here, and you will find what contents we have inside this particular document. So you can see that it will start with the cloud computing introduction and list of things that we should know.
Now, what I have done that I have recorded videos here you can see that what’s cloud Computing Data center, cloud Characteristics services, etcetera, listed all these videos. Total number of videos you can see starting with two to 21. That means you’ll get the complete 21 videos, including this introduction. So if you mark one as an introduction, you will find 21 videos related to how you can understand cloud computing services based on NIST 800-145. So please go and watch these 21 videos, and then you will understand all these important things. All right, so let’s stop here then.
74. What is Cloud Computing
In chapter one we will study about what is cloud computing. Then what are the foundational things inside the cloud, what is cloud hype, the history behind this cloud computing, the common cloud characteristics On Demand self service rapid elasticity polling services, et cetera. So one by one, I will hit all these things. Let us start with our topic and talk about that. What is cloud computing? Now suppose if you have to fly from India to Germany, then you will either purchase the entire airline or, obviously, you will book a ticket inside the aircraft and you’ll go from India to Germany like that. Okay? So that means, what does it mean that suppose if you want a particular compute infrastructure or you can say if you want particular network infrastructure, why we need network infrastructure? So let me break these things down. Say companies they want what?
Profit and companies they are running over what applications. Now, these applications need what? These applications need infrastructure. Correct. They need IT support; they need infrastructure; they need a quick response between client and user. They need a network spread from one branch to another, from the head office to the branches, or something like that. Okay, so the overall goal is to increase income and profit. But the other thing is that you have to decrease the infrastructure cost or another cost involved in the operations. You can say, okay, so what is the goal about cloud computing is that whenever you need that infrastructure, you take that infrastructure structure, whatever time frame you wanted, when you are not using that, release it. Okay, so that is the overall goal of cloud computing. That it is something like need-based computing, or that once you need it, you take it, and when you don’t need it, you give it back. Whatever you are using, you are paying for it. Correct.
Now let’s see the theory. What the theory says is that this is not a miraculous product that will provide you with all sorts of solutions. But yes, with efficiently using this cloud computing, you can reduce the operational cost, you can reduce the overall cost of the organization. That is the overall goal of this. And how you can reduce this, because this cloud has some properties, it has some inherent properties like it can do on demand self-service, like it can rapidly stretch the network. Means you can stretch the infrastructure without needing so much approvals or without needing so much contracts. Then you can effectively use the resources. Then you have broad network access because this cloud visibility is, at the moment, everywhere on the globe. So you have that broad network access, and finally you can measure the services. so you can measure. I have taken service A-B-C-Dim using only B and D. So yes, I will pay for A and C. Correct? So those five things are very important with respect to the cloud. And if you add all these five things, obviously you will reduce the cost of the operation. Correct?
Now you can see here the cloud hype that in2008 approx. and nine at that time people are thinking, cloud is like something will solve everything. But once they know the reality, now you can see that it is constant at the moment means still now people know that okay, with cloud I have features, means can reduce the cost, but you have to apply this in a proper direction, in a proper manner. Again, what is the traditional It challenges you that you have low efficiency, although you have so many routers and firewall worker stations in terms of physical things and have invested a lot in the infrastructure. But what is the overall outcome? And believe it or not, if you see your premises or your infrastructure, you will find that the most expensive department is the IT department, say, for HR what they need. They need paper chair, table, that’s it. Obviously, they need one worker station to work. But if you see the infrastructure, you need database infrastructure, a router, security devices, and expensive servers. All these things you need. So if you compare the cost of, say, IT infrastructure with the cost of HR finance cells, you’ll find the IT department cost is very high. So if we compare with the cost, with the efficiency, is it that much efficient? Plus, it lacks agility.
And again, that is due to extreme complexity. Let me show you that. What is the definition of this cloud? You can refer to this evolution of clouds. You can say that in 1957, IBM started this cloud. We’ll see that in the upcoming lectures. That what was the mainframe sharing and then how this cloud has been evolved in 2006, this AWS, they really come very hard in the market. And at the moment, AWS, I think they have 90%of public or hybrid cloud share at the moment. Rest all other companies say Cisco. I think Cisco has less than 5% of share. Even Microsoft has less than 4% of the like that. At the moment, the leading company in the cloud is Amazon Web Services, or AWS, and they have more than 1000 products on the market. So this is the final definition of cloud computing. Let me explain this definition, because it is very compact. It is telling that cloud computing is a model, and you can write a demand-based model.
So cloud computing is something called a demand-based model. What it will do is enable ubiquitous on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources, which means you can share the resources. So whatever resources you have with respect to network, server storage, and application services, you can share. So it’s a demand-based model where you can share the resources, and finally, those can be rapidly provisioned and released. So both the things you can do apply it, you can release its cloud is nothing but a type of It infrastructure structure hosted somewhere because this is a shared It infrastructure structure. So what is the good thing about this that they can give this particular resources company A, B, and C say this with respect to clouds; we can think like this. Now, a particular client, A, can deploy their services, which can be released in no time or in very little time. So that is the overall definition of cloud computing. Let me stop here. I hope you can understand what is the cloud computing?
75. Physical Cloud Data Center
What is the data center when we are talking about the cloud? So suppose this is the cloud from which we are taking the resources. And once we use that resource, we can then underplay it, okay? Something you can say that demand based type of thing. But inside the cloud, obviously, you have some sort of infrastructure, and you can think of this as a data center. Now, inside that particular infrastructure, they can use any form of virtualization automation. You can say “software-defined network,” et cetera. But still they need some hardware, say related to network, related tithe storage, related to the virtualization. So whatever things will be, they need some hardware. Here you can see the module, or the abstract, of a data center, where you can see that we have various components. So first of all, you have the floor. And if you ever went inside the data center, you know that they have some raised floors. It depends that inside that. Also they can keep the UCS or power backups or they have somewhere in the corner they can put the power backup primary and secondary power supply. Then, obviously, you have a very strict entrance room. You need a different type of access level to enter the room. Because inside the data center you have so many devices and they are running 24 by seven by365 into say ten or 20 or 15 years. So, at that, For those purposes, you need a proper cooling system.
Okay? This is the overall model of a data center. And if you see what the definition of “data center” is, it says: “a special facility conceived to house, manage, and support critical computing resources.” We know about these critical computing resources. They are something called, say, “network,” “storage servers,” “applications,” et cetera. So to put all these critical resources, compute resources, you need a particular area or a particular data center. So that is referred to as a data center. Okay? And obviously for cloud also we need a data center. Now, here are some definitions of the power backup system. You can take a reference from this particular slide. What about the entrance room, telecommunications room, and cooling system? Obviously you need a good cooling or AC system to cool all the devices all the time. Then we have rakes, generally 42 U. Rake is the standard, but it depends on what type of device and what type of port density you have. According to that, you need rakes or patch panels or cabling—all sorts of infrastructure you need. Finally, you can see the raised floor here. Okay? So just hold on, check the definitions, and be very good for this particular section.
76. Common Cloud Characteristics
What are the common cloud characteristics? Now, these things are also true for the infrastructure, but everything that we are doing here we can think of with respect to the cloud.
So whatever It infrastructure we want to elaborate ore want to work on we can think this as these type of things inside the cloud. Okay, so the characteristics of clouds are that they can provide on-demand self-service. We’ll see that in this particular course. Rapid elasticity, resource pooling, measured service, and broad network access—these things can be proven with your IT infrastructure as well. Okay, remember these things. So whatever we are studying about the cloud means how we can send the resource request to the cloud, and once we get all those resources, then after that, how we can underplay it or cancel this is a different thing. That is how a user interacts with the cloud, but inside the cloud or inside your premises, you can use these technologies. Okay, so let us discuss more about “on demand self service” and we can compare this with my infrastructure and the cloud infrastructure. So suppose you want some sort of service in your infrastructure; what are the restrictions? You have to go for your technical team then that technical team, they will check with the contracts do you have contact with the third party or the ISP?
If there is provisioning inside that contact, you will get the resource, but again, the It team has to deploy, say in terms of servers, storage, and networking, and then the user will get it. So here we have the complete lifecycle inside our infrastructure, but now that we are talking about the cloud inside the cloud, how they will provide it doesn’t matter, but the thing is that I need that resource; could you please deploy it? The cloud will reply yes, you have your server, your storage, your networking, you can get it. Okay so here you can understand the way or the approach that how we are sending the request, how were getting the request, that is different thing but how the infrastructure built inside the cloud is different thing. So please do not compare these things; otherwise, generally, people have a misperception or they think, “Oh, what is cloud computing, and what is my infrastructure like?” These types of feelings will come then rapid elasticity. Suppose if you have to expand your branch for example you have one branch, other branch just you want for testing purpose.
You have started your business in some new branch you want to check the capabilities again it will go inside a lifecycle, means you need the resources you need say server storage, compute services, applications, all sort of stuff you need, you need complete project lifecycle, that is the rigidity in the It. But in terms of, say, the cloud, you can send one request. You have all those things; you have your server storage network application; everything you need will be available within a fraction of, say, hours, not seconds per minute. Okay? So that is the purpose of the consumption model. You want it; you’ll get it in this section. Finally, let us discuss about the resource pooling. Now, again and again, I’m telling you that this can be your infrastructure as well. Okay? Means you are using the resource resources properly or not means sometimes what happens that, say, for a company, I have dedicated resource. So one of the branch, say, I’ll take this as a branch here it is written as a company. So one of the branch in, say, Arizona, I have dedicated, say, server storage networking device, say, one branch in Phoenix for that. Also, I have dedicated servers, storage, and network. That is the common practice in the traditional network.
But when we are talking about resource pooling, that means you have your infrastructure somewhere. This can be the cloud’s; this can be yours. And inside this infrastructure as per need basis. So generally, in modern days, we have something called T-Net for the organization. So I have one TNET that is nothing but a logical representation of, say, an organization or group of things, or some sort of element. Okay? So tenant one I have, tenant two I have, and according to what fabric access or what level of access tenant one and two have, they will get it. So they will get a virtual server and virtual storage. virtual network virtual server storage and a virtual network. This is abstracted from the actual hardware that I have here in the resource pool. Now, according to need, I have these virtual devices. I have these virtual devices that I can work on. And that is that inside the cloud they are working. So inside the cloud, they will provide you with all those things. But they are doing the resource polling. So that’s why, according to the signed agreement from the consumer to the cloud provider, they are providing different, say, compute with respect to different clients.
77. Measured Services
Let us discuss the rest of the characteristics. We have measured our services. Now what does it mean by measured service? It’s actually very easy. Now suppose you have this cloud and you have purchased services A, B, and C. But you don’t have any mechanism to determine what percentage of E and C you have used inside the cloud. You must measure those services that you have purchased from the cloud until unless how could you pay them correctly? Say after three months you come to know that Cis underutilized or maybe B is for example over utilized. Then how could be the billing cycle? Maybe you think that the service C I haven’t used but still I am paying. So that means we need a properly measured service for the cloud services. Now, what is the problem with these types of measured services? Do you have proper visibility of the network or not? That is a key concept here. So if you have proper visibility, if you have proper monitoring tools, then only you can measure all the services or measure the application or services that you have hosted over the cloud. Here in this diagram you can see that say I have services over one time frame. It is something like 30% used; it is something like 25% used. But in other time slots, it is more than 100 or maybe 100% used.
If I have major services, if I have visibility tools, monitoring tools, then Icon set some common principle or rules. Okay, this much, this much, this much for, this much, this much, this much time frame I need to utilize. Okay, now the other characteristic—this is the last one—is the broad network access. And this is again a very important cloud service. We have these cloud providers, say, for example, AWS; they have visibility across the globe; they may have I think more than 21 presence across the globe. But you need to check the sheet. But yeah, if you have broader network access, that means the end user also has visibility. So suppose if they want to use some services, this is a company called ABC; it is situated somewhere in India, but it has servers in the USA. So if this cloud has visibility inside India, obviously first it will go to India, and then it will get that service or those applications, whatever it is looking for.
Now suppose you don’t have visibility in India. What will happen? You will go search the USA server, and then you will come back from there. Now doing this, what will happen? Doing this you can drastically increase the latency and jitter and all those steps that delay stuff because now your packet will go via more number of hops inside the cloud to reach to the USA server. Okay, so if you have clustering in terms of servers, if you have primary security backup servers or data centers, say one is in the US and one is in India, So whatever the nearest, say, branch or nearest head office or nearest consumer is there, they will request the nearest resources, and they will get the response. In that way, the latency and digital and all those delay counters can be minimized inside the cloud. Okay? So that is one of the common principle of the cloud computing, that they have brought access or not.
Okay, then let us discuss about multitenancy, because so many times we are very confused about, okay, tenancy and multitenancy. What is the actual use of tenancy and multitenancy? Why? It is very important at the moment, say, in the software defined network and in the cloud computing, actually it is important. Why? First of all, let us understand, what does it mean by Tenants if I’m telling Tan, what does it mean? TNA is nothing but a logical entity that can represent, say, a group. So, group of organization, it can represent or it can represent a department, department, say, HR or Cells or another department, or it can be any logical entity.
Okay? So the tenant is nothing but abstraction over the physical layer. So whatever physical fabric access you have, you have something like an “access layer,” where you have your physical resources, and you can add fabric as well. So you have a stretchable access layer. On top of that, you can create logical containers. Those logical containers can represent a group of organizations, a department, et cetera. That is one tenant. Now, suppose I am inside one organization and this is my organization. My organization name is A and for HR cells. And it So h for HR as cells and then it I have three tenant. Likewise, somewhere in some other company called B, they have their tenants like HR, Cells, and It. And suppose somewhere down the line again, some third company, C, they also have their tenant HR Sales and It, that is with respect to the companies. Now, all these companies request resources from the cloud, okay? Now, because cloud now, in this cloud, they have the slice or they have a tnant. Say for A, they have tenants for B, and they have tenants for C. So from tenant A, they can serve company A, which has its own tenant called HR cells. And it, like B, will serve B, where they have their own tenants like HR cells.
And it. And C, as in, okay, so you have the tenant concept not only in the cloud but inside the organization as well. And that’s why it is a multi-tenant concept. and it’s a very important concept. Okay? Finally, in this particular recording, I have to opiate this. Classifying the clouds We’ll learn more about classifying the clouds in the upcoming sessions. We have two criteria. One is the service model. One is the deployment model. In the service model, we have infrastructure as a service, that is, IaaS; platform as a service, that is, PaaS; and then software as a service. That is SaaS. We’ll see that. What does it mean, and what are the practical examples of that? Then? Inside the deployment model, we have public-private community clouds or hybrid clouds. It’s very important. There are some plus and minus of public. There are some plus minus of private. There are some good and some cost-effective things about hybrids as well. Okay, so let us stop here.