101: Application Delivery Fundamentals Certification Video Training Course Outline
F5 BIG-IP Lab
Application Delivery Controller ...
Part 3: Maintaining Application ...
Part 4: Application and Security...
Part 5: Troubleshooting Network ...
101: Application Delivery Fundamentals Certification Video Training Course Info
Gain in-depth knowledge for passing your exam with Exam-Labs 101: Application Delivery Fundamentals certification video training course. The most trusted and reliable name for studying and passing with VCE files which include F5 101 practice test questions and answers, study guide and exam practice test questions. Unlike any other 101: Application Delivery Fundamentals video training course for your certification exam.
3. Switching Concepts Part 2
Alright, so we are going to create a new network, and we're also going to expand it and add more hosts. I'm going to add a switch here, andI'm going to call this Switch One. I'm going to add PCA to the Mac address of Quadruple A again. And I'm going to change the IP address. I'm going to use 192-1681. I'm also going to use Ethernet One connected to the PCA and Ethernet Two connected to the PCB. I'm also going to add a few more hosts. This is Server, server D, 192-1682 fourMac address DDD mac address CCR. All right, so we have four hosts connected to what? Switch. But we want to create more than just one broadcast domain. We want to isolate broadcast domain because broadcastdomain can be a cause of a problem,especially if you have hundreds or even thousandsof posts in a single broadcast today. Now what we're going to do iswe're going to create a VLAN. VLAN allows us to isolate or recreate multiple broadcasts. So I'm going to add there you go. I'm going to name this lantern. I'm also going to create another VLAN. So both TCB and Server D belong to VLAN 20. All right, so PCA and server C are now under VLAN Ten. And what happened in series when PCA sent traffic to Server C and the switch received it? All right, the switch received the traffic from Me 1. It will not send broadcasts to Ethernet One and Ethernet Core because they're not in the same broadcast domain. However, it will send the broadcast traffic down to E-3, and Server C will receive it. It will respond back to the Switch, telling it, "Hey, Mr. Switch, this is my Mac address CCC, please add me to your account table. All right, so that's how a broadcastdomain works in a multiple VLAN environment. Now what I'm going to do is also extend our broadcast domain or VLAN configuration to another switch. So I'm going to add here. There you go. And I'm going to add a server. I will call this Server E with anIP address of one, nine, 2168, ten, five. I'm also going to add another server, server F. I will add an IP address 192-1682 six. All right, now the same goes with our PCA and Server C. Server E will also have a VLAN configuration on its ports. I'm going to use E five for Server E and E six for Server F ten. Now maybe you're thinking, "How do we configure VLAN 10?" Well, VLANs are configured on the port itself. Okay? So I should have done something like this because the VLAN configuration is based on port configuration, not on the PC side. I'm going to add server F as a VLAN. Let me put it here. VLAN 20. There you go. Now here's the question. If PCA and Server E belong to the same VLAN, can PCA send traffic to Server E, or can PCB send traffic down to Server F? If you're saying yes, the answer is no. Why? Because switch one and switch twois not connected to each other. Of course, okay? It's not possible. So what I'm going to do is create an uplink, a connection between switch one and switch two. And I'm going to use a specific board. I am going to use E eleven and E twelve and E twelve. Now here's what I'm going to do. Since we have two VLANs, at least in our diagram, I'm going to create an uplink dedicated for VLAN ten. I'm going to do it now. There you go. an uplink dedicated for VLAN ten, and another uplink dedicated for VLAN 20. There you go. So what's happened here is that if PCA sends traffic to servery, it will send it to this link, switch to receive it, and forward it down to server E. Simple. The same is true for PCB to server F. But here's the problem, okay? The problem is that this design is not good. Actually, it's kind of stupid, right? not so smart. The reason behind this is that we're only using two VLANs. What if we are using ten or 20 VLANs? That means we'll be wasting 10 to 20 ports just for an uplink. Crazy. And you cannot also do redundancy; it's too much. Plus, the configuration—the configuration for multiple uplinks—can be complicated and cumbersome. Now, there's a better way, and the better way requires us to only use a single up link. And here's what I'm going to do. Instead of using dedicated VLAN VLAN linking between switches one and two, I will simply use a single up link. And this uplink, this connection, will carry not just VLAN 10, but also VLAN 20 and other VLANs. So if I have VLAN 30, 40, or 50, this will also be carried on this link. Now maybe you're already familiar with this protocol. Well, for some vendors like Cisco, it is commonly called, guess what? You're correct. It is called a trunk. But other vendors are not using Trunk. Instead, it's using a different terminology. It's using tab. Okay, so Trunk is not their terminology that we're going to use, but they're both using the same protocol. Anyway. Now here's how it looks on the frame level. So we have a source and a destination. And this is the payload. The reason why it's called Tab Because when we send traffic to this Tab interface or this Tab link, there is a new frame added between the destination's Mac address and the payload. And this is called a tab. Now if I zoom in, the tab has three divisions. But the second one is not that important. The first one is the priority, or the POS. And the last one is this, where we specify the VLAN ID. So, if we send traffic from PCA to server E as well, if the traffic is already in this link, it will use a VLAN ID of VLAN 10. So here we have a value of ten. As soon as it receives two, it will look at the frame, and in the time frame it will say, "Hey, this is VLAN ID, and your value is ten." I am going to now send it to all portsmaps to VLAN 10, assuming this is broadcast traffic. So it will send it down to step five, where the server is connected. In addition, e5 is set up for VLAN.
4. Switching Concepts Part 3
All right, so we discussed the tagging function where we use the two-one Q protocol and we added a tag frame. Inside the time frame, we have the priority value and the VLAN ID. Now take note that interface E one, e two,e three and E four of switch one andinterface ethernet five and six of switch two. These are all using a tag interface. tag interface means there is no tag frame. Put it here; change one. These are all right. These are all untagged. And the reason why it's called "untagged" is because all of this interface is mapped to a single VLAN. So let's talk about redundant links. As we mentioned in our previous discussion, e11, switch one, and e11, switch two are connected, and we are using a two-one Q where we carry multiple VLANs. But the advantage—or should I say disadvantage—of this is that if this interface loses connectivity or interface 11 shuts down. There is no way we can send traffic from Switch One to Switch Two or vice versa. Okay? It would be better if we added a redundant link. So this is what we're going to do. Let me first delete this. There you go. And I'm going to add a redundant link from switch one to switch two using interface E 12. There you go. So we have a redundant link. But in this case it's not so good because this is considered a loop topology where PCA sends traffic to server E. or if PCB sends traffic to server F. It will forward the traffic, yeah. We already know it will forward traffic to other servers. But switch to assuming that it still needs to do broadcast or layer-two flooding. It will not only send it to e five.It will also send it back to twelve, where it will be received by the switched one. Once the switch one received the broadcast, it will send itto e one and e three and back to E eleven. So this pattern will continue on. And it just looked, it's also the same. You can send traffic from PCB to PCF. Now the reason why this is not so good is that first we're not going to experience loops because most of the high-end switches or the enterprise-rate switches have a feature called STP, or the spanning tree protocol. It's not the Stone Temple Pilots. And it says three because it's the equivalent of erecting a massive tree to block an interface. Yes, we're going to block an interface. And please allow me to first delete all of the vehicles that we added. All right, there you go. And we're going to add STP spanning three protocols. This is a look at the prevention mechanism, and here's how it works. First we have to elect a root bridge. What is the root bridge? Well, let's say this is the central switch of a learning environment. This is not so obvious because we only have a pair of switches. But if you have four or more switches you will seethe difference in the real use of a root bridge. Anyway, we have to elect one root bridge in our loop environment, and this can be based on the priority values. Now, assuming that we didn't change the priority value of the switch, we're using the default, which is 32768. The tiebreaker would be the system Mac address or the switch Mac address. Let's say you switch systems: one system's Mac address is ABAB, and the switch to system Academy will be EFEF. Now if you compare the value of ABAB versus EFEF It will look for the lower Mac address or switch Mac addresses. The lower the switch Mac address, the greater the rootbreak. Okay, let me just sit down, and I'm going to say reach. There you go. So switch one is now the rootbridge, and if you are the rootbridge, that means your interfaces, in this case, eleven and twelve, will not be, or will not become, blocking ports. Okay? They are automatically a designated port, meaning they can forward the traffic. And we only have two switches here. But if we have, let's say, three switches on an interface that is connected to a report anyway, we're not going to discuss more details with SDT. So what's going to happen here is that either E 11 or E 12, excuse me, of the switchboard will become the blocking port. Okay? Since both interface eleven and E twelve areusing the same Mac address and the questionis who will be the blocking port? Is it eleven or twelve? Well, again they're using the same Mac address. So the tiebreaker is the interface number with the lower interface, and the interface number with the lower interface becomes the designated port. So E twelve is the higher the better, the lower the better. The higher the worse. So I'm going to put this in a blocking port. Now this is what we call a redundant link. On two switches, we have two links, but if you look at the idea of a tool link switch connection, it acts as an active standby set up.This means that the first link will actively receive and send traffic, whereas the second will simply wait and sit there, waiting for the first link to fail. When it goes down, it will reelect from an undesignated port. It will become a designated port. But this is not so good. The reason why there is a downtime Not only that, we have created two physical links, but we're only using one. So what I'm going to do is Iam going to introduce you to another option. This option is better because instead of using two interfaces with only one active, I am going to bundle them like that. And instead of one active, physical interface receiving and sending traffic, it will be both interfaces actively receiving and sending traffic. This is what we called link aggregation, butin F five we call this trunk. That's the reason why I don't want you to use trunk in addition to that one cube protocol. Because "trunking" or "trunk" is used for aggregating links, all right? And if you are working with other devices, such as Cisco switches, this is equivalent to—in Cisco, they have many terminologies. We have channel group four, channel, and interchannel. But it's the same concept. We are bundling two or more physical interfaces to act as one logical interface. And the good thing about this is, all right, both are actively sending and receiving traffic. If one interface goes down, for example, the first interface or the first link becomes unavailable, it will still continue sending traffic, and you will not experience down time. The only thing that you will experience is probable congestion and a heavy traffic load. But when it comes to availability, you will not experience any downtime at all.
5. Switching Concepts Part 4
We introduced networking the minimalist way. We have two hosts. Host A and Host B They are directly connected to each other and start communicating. We also introduce layer one, or the physical layer. This is the lowest layer of our OSI model. It is defined as the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional separation for activating and deactivating physical leaks. Under layer one, we have some components. We have cable. This can be copper or optical. We also have repeaters. The repeater allows us to extend our CAS 5 or CAP 6 cable. We also have hubs. Hubs is not popular anymore. But this is a layer one device, or layer one network device. And how it works is that it sends all incoming and outgoing traffic to all ports that can cause collisions. So if you're using a hub in your network, the entire network is just one foliation domain. Layer Two Data Link: This allows the upper layer to access the media using framing. It is also defined as how data is formatted for transmission and how access to the network is controlled. It provides error detection as well. And like what I mentioned, it uses Frame as its transmission unit. Ethernet Switch: This is a network device that operates in layer 2 of the OSI model. It uses Mac addresses to process and forward traffic. How about an Ethernet bridge? The Ethernet Bridge, like the switch, operates at the layer 2 level. But think of it as a switch. Excuse me, but I think it's a bridge—like a switch that has fewer ports. We talk about many different protocols under layer-two technologies. We also discuss Mac Address, which is the hardware address and layer-two identifier found on each port. The port can be on a host or PC, on a server, or on a network device. This is always a unique value per broadcast domain. This is also how switches figure out which port they will forward traffic to. We also talk about the com table or the Mac address table. This is where our switch adds layers of information to the host or other devices. This information, or layer two information, is the Mac address mapped to an interface and the villain ID associated with that interface. So there are three information added per entry theMac address, the interface and the VLAN ID. We also talk about broadcast domains. Broadcast Domain: This is how our nodes can reach each other via layer-based communications. You can also create multiple broadcastdomains using VLAN or Virtual LAN. I forgot to mention in our whiteboarding session that VLANs are a twelve-bit value. So therefore, you can create as many as 4000 or more VLANs on a switch. And I almost forgot to mention that it's over 4000. There's no specific VLAN number because it may vary per vendor, per platform, or even per switch model. We also talk about the 802 Q or Tag interface. This allows a switch layer two interface or a singlelayer two interface of a switch to carry multiple VLAN. This can be sent to another switch, and of course that switch must have a tag interface configuration as well. We have also talked about Untag. Well, tag versus untag is used most commonly for interfaces directly connected to a host because, most of the time, this host only uses or only needs a single villain. The reason it's called untagged is because there is no additional tag frame added in our original Ethernet header. Finally, we have link aggregation, also known as FIV truck. This allows the switch or a network device to bundle multiple ports, and it will act as a logical single interface. This provides many advantages, such as resilience, load balancing across multiple physical interfaces, higher bandwidth, and a redundant address resolution protocol. ARP versus reverse address. resolution protocol or rap. Now, we've already talked about ARP as the communication protocol used for discovering the Macaddress associated with a given IP address, and it uses a simple message format containing one address resolution request or response. Now, in our previous whiteboard discussion, we used Art when the switch sends broadcasts to discover a specific host. And this broadcast is also known as an "art broadcast" or "art plowing." It is using a Mac address with all F values. Again. All f-values It is Rprokas ma's address. And this broadcast is sent to all ports except the port where we originated. The initiator of traffic and all of the computers or the host will accept this broadcast. And there is one particular host that will not only accept but also send term traffic. And this traffic is an answer that it is confirming. He is the IP address that we are trying to reach, and it will send the Mac address. So the switch will learn the Mac address is owned by this specific IP address. Okay, now that is our mapping between Mac and an IP address used for the discovery of many resources. They believe that Art is not only a layer-two protocol, but also a layer-three protocol for me and by concept, because it uses both Mac addresses, which are layer-two, and IP addresses, which are layer-three. This is more of a transition from layer two to layer three since layer three doesn't understand Mac addresses or IP addresses. For us to successfully encapsulate layer two information into layer three information, we use this specific protocol, which is known as ARP. We also have the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, or the reverse ARP. And the reason why it's called "reverse" is because instead of obtaining a Mac address, we want to obtain an IP address. This is used from the data link layer, and it is used for one technology such as frame, relay, ATM, and others. It is also used on the web as well. The client also requests an IP address from a computer network that is available in its link layer or hardware address, such as Map. The client also sends broadcasts, and it doesn't need prior knowledge of the network topology. If you think about it, this is how it works. I will send my Mac address; please give me an IP address and I will send it to broadcast. This is also how our DHCP dynamic host" protocol works. This is very common with our wireless technology. If we have tablets or mobile devices and connect to a network, we don't get to configure our IP address statically. Once we connect to the network, we get WiFi access. We automatically get an IP address dynamically, and that is through the dynamic host configuration protocol, or DHCP. Now, rap and DHCP are almost the same in concept. That is why Rap is already obsolete, and this is replaced by our bootstrapping protocol, which is also obsolete but preceded our dynamic host configuration protocol, DHCP. So that is the difference between the address resolution protocol and the reverse address resolution protocol.
6. IP Addressing and Subnetting Part 1
IP address in subnetic Now, what I have here is an IP address, 192-168-1124. Now, this IP address is the most commonly used IP address assigned to our home or enterprise network. An IP address is a logical identifier that operates in layer three of the OSI model. This is also configured on every host, such as PCs, laptops, mobile devices, or even our network device and security appliance. Now, it consists of a total of 32 bits, and we have four octets. Now, what does an octet of tetrahedra mean? It's a group of eight bits. That's why it's called "opt," because it's eight. And what we have here, 192, is considered an opt-out, so it's another eight bits. And the reason why an IP address is very versatile when it comes to configuration and design is because it has two parts. We have the network, and we have the host. The slash is 24. This prefix represents the network. Slash 24 means that the bits from the left down to the right represent the network. It means 24 bits are part of the network. Now, if you look at our IP address and the octaves that I specified, eight, eight, eight plus eight plus eight is equivalent to 24. That is why 192 and 168 are part of the network. Now, I'm using colour blue for the network part, and I'm going to use colour red for the host part. One of the Ford objects represents the host. Again, an IP address has two parts: the network, or sometimes we call it the network ID. The other is host, also known as host ID. I'm also going to use a light blue for the divider. So I am going to divide the network and the host for you to better understand. Okay? Now, the next thing that we will do is dissect this IP address and network. What do you mean? They stated that we must comprehend everything about this IP address and the 24 network. Now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to specify 192-16-8103. Now, as I mentioned, the first three objects are the networks. See that? Now, if I am going to write everything continuously from 0123 up to 109 216-8125 five, this represents all the IP addresses of this network. And I'm going to use the divider. There you go. Excuse me. The first three objects are the network. And as you can see, the last object here is the host. Now, if you're thinking, "Okay, how did we get the two five five?" Well, two-five is the last decimal value for an eight-bit computer. and we're going to talk about that in a bit. see that in a bit. Now let's talk about first what we have inthis network, a total IP address of 24 network. As you can see, it's very obvious from 0 to 2 to 5 that the total is 256. Okay? So I'm going to write here. Maximum IP address is two five six. There you have it, clear 256. But there are IP addresses in a network that are reserved and cannot be used as a host ID. All right, there are two of them. The first one would be the zero. Or we can call it an all-zero IP address because all of the bits are set to zero. And this is what we call the network address. Okay, this is reserved as a network address. You cannot use it. We also have another address that is used for broadcasts. So there are two networks and one broadcast reserved. They cannot be used to configure our host for an IP address. So therefore, the maximum usable IP address for any network in particular will be 256 minus two. So it should be 254. Now let's go back. How did you get the 255? Before we get to the 255, I want toshow you the basics of binary to decimal conversion. And for those who are not familiar with binary to decimal conversion, it's quite easy, right? And we're going to do it the very basic first. What is the first decimal value? Well, it is zero. Some people might see one, but no, it's zero. The next one is Now this is a decimal, the one on the right. If you look at the binary, it's the same as the decimal zero, the same value as one. Okay? When you say binary, that means there are only two values, okay? One is zero, and the other is one. So the next zero is one. Okay? Now the next decimal value is two. And in a binary, since there are only two values, zero and one, the next thing we will do is to add another bit, meaning I will add something like this, or we can also do this. Instead of just one bit, we can just use two bits. Zero is still zero; one is still one. Okay, because it's the first zero. A leading zero indicates that zero can be omitted or ignored. Anyway, for the decimal value of two, what we are going to do is use the speed and set it to one. Quite easy, right? How about a decimal value of three? How can we convert it to binary? Well, if the decimal value is 10 in binary, we will just increment the zero to one like this. All right, how about four, or decimal value four? How does it work? Well, same pattern asked me did from one to two. Since the two pits are already filled, we have no more space. We are going to add another bit on the left. Okay? And we will convert the one to zero because that will be the next value. Now I'm going to show you a reference that we're going to use a lot, and this will allow you to understand how binary to decimal conversion works. All right? So here's the reference. What we have is an eight-bit value. This is for the opted. Now, what I have here is binary, or all zero optics. And here's the pattern. If I am going to convert the 8th bit, meaning the first bit on the left, this is equivalent to 128. Okay? Now, what if I use, or if I convert, the seven bits? This is a value of 64. And I'm going to use different colours for each bit, okay, so you can use it as a quick reference. And what's next is the sixth bit. If I'm going to convert the six-bit, the value will be 32. Okay, how about the fifth bit? What will happen if I convert the fifth bit to 1? This will be a value of 16, right? What if I convert the value of the four bits? This is equivalent to eight. How about I convert the third bit? This will be Book 4. And if you look, this is exactly what we have in our previous example, okay? And the first bit and the second bit—this is very obvious. This is two, and this is one. This is exactly what we use here and here. Okay? So the obvious is one, two, and four. And I will use more of reference for the now let's figureout how is or what is the binary conversion of 192. 192 is what? It's 128 plus 64, which equals one nine two. How about the 168? 168 is 128 plus 32. 32 is 32. 128 plus 30 days, equivalent to what? 160 already. So we just need to add a value of eight. So this would be equivalent to 010-10100. So that is the decimal-to-binary conversion.
7. IP Addressing and Subnetting Part 2
As network professionals, we are occasionally asked to design a new network scheme. Now, for this network scheme, there is a requirement. We are asked to create a network-usable IP address or maximum usable host of 400. Why? Because maybe this company has a new network and has 400 PCs or close to that. We need to create a network that accommodates 400 hosts. Now, to understand this, we're going to use our existing network, the 192-168-1024. But we already know that this doesn't fit because the maximum usable host for this network is only 254. We need to understand how we can create a network that will provide or accommodate more hosts. I will do next is just use this network as a reference, because what I'm going to do next is borrow a bit from the network. Why is that? Because our host is only a little bit. And for us to create or add more hosts, we're going to borrow a bit or maybe more bits from the network. So I will just copy one, nine, 2168, the first and second octet. Why? Because we're not borrowing bits from the first and second octet. It's way too far from the fourth octet. I will convert the third option to binary zero and zero. I will also convert the fourth octet to binary, namely, zero. Okay. Now, if you look at our existing network, we know the divider is here just between the third and fourth opted. Again, this is eight bits, and this is eight bits. Well, the whole site is eight bits as well. Okay, this is what we understand from our previous whiteboard session. Next, we'll borrow some information from the network. When I say "borrow one bit," I mean on the host side. We will add plus one. So we will now have nine bits of host. I will just erase that, and I will only underline the seven bits. I will also change this to seven bits. There you go. Now I'm going to write this and convert it to decimals. It would be 192, 168, 100:23. Why 23? Well, because if you add the network bits, it will be only eight plus eight plus seven, which equals 23. Okay, there is one more thing that I need to highlight here. We cannot use this third octave value of one. Well, we can, but it will not be a network address. It will be equivalent to a host address. Why is that? Take note that this is the 9th bit in the pit. It is now part of the host. So if you increment it to one, it will now be a host IP address. Okay? So in order for this to convert to networking, it must be set to all zeros. So we will just change this to zero. So our real network address will be 192,168; the third off will be zero. Okay, so this is it. This is our new network. Now, we also need to know how many IP addresses this network accommodates. And maybe you're thinking, "How would you know that we need to only borrow one bit instead of two or three?" Well, if you look at this reference, as you can see, as you move to the left or as you add one more bit, it doubles the value from one to two, from two to four, and from four to eight. Okay. It multiplies by two. So if we have a maximum of 256, that means if I borrow one bit, the maximum would be 512, right? Okay. It's not the maximum usable IP address, but we have an idea how many IP addresses we can accommodate if we use the 23 network. So what is the real value or the real maximum? The IP address is 512 minus two because of the broadcast and the network address. So our total usable address is $510. Let's continue. I will add a second IP address. I will just copy the first and second opcodes and the third opcode; I will just copy all seven zeros. Now, on the host, take note of this. I will just increment it the way we used to do it. From zero, the next value will be one. Okay? Now, the next IP address would be 182, 168, Copy all of the zeros. And if we look at this reference here after two, our binary value would be 10. Okay, I'm going to write it to decimal 192, 16801, 182. If I continue writing, the last IP address would be one. I'll look at this. Keep in mind that, again, this 9th bit is part of the host. So if we're looking for the last IP address, which is the broadcast address, this needs to be set to one. Okay, now we go for the fourth object. This will be one, one, one. Okay. Now I need to add more zeros here. If I convert this to decimal, that will be one in the range of 21680. Sorry. This will be one, because look at this. It's one, two, 5520, 3rd. Okay. Now, this is our new network. It is 23 years old, and it can accommodate up to 510 usable post-IP IP address.Now, one more thing. I mentioned the difference between a network and a subnet. In the real world, these two terminologies are frequently used interchangeably. But the real meaning of a network is based on the classes. In this example, we are using a Class C network. This is class C. Let me change that. Class C. And when you say "class C network," this is a network that starts with one, nine, 2168, and the third octet ranging from zero to two, five, five, and four. That's a network. If we borrow a bit either from the host side or from the network side, this would make it a subnet. We have a new requirement. This time, the required host IP address would be lower. I have here to host, and they are connected directly together. We will be using our reference networks 100 and 921-668-1024. Again, our required hosts will be just two. We will convert this network, but we're not going to convert the first, second, or even third fibre. Okay? We will just copy it. 192-1681 dot. Now, Ford opted for this one. We will be converting to binary. And maybe you're asking why. From the previous example, we converted the third optical system to binary. This time we only converted the fourth optic. Well, because our original network can already accommodate 254 host IP addresses and we are decreasing the required number, we are only required to create a network for two host IP addresses. So no way, we're not going to borrow a bit or visit the third optic. Now, we already know this is 192, 168, 10. We need to figure out how many bits we are going to borrow. This time we will borrow the host's bits. So let's take a guess. If we're going to borrow four bits somewhere here in between the fourth and the fifth bit, how many IP addresses do you think that it can accommodate? If you look at this reference, if you set it to one, you will have eight. Well, yeah, only if you set the four-bit value to one. But if you set all of the other bits to one, that will be a total of more than eight. Actually, the total of 16 minus two will be a maximum of ten usable hosts. So ten versus two is a stretch. What we want to do, or what we want to use, is a network that can only accommodate two hosts. What if we move our divider from here, in between the first and second bits? Well, this is not also correct, because if there's only one bit for the host, that means you only have two bits, zero and one. How about the broadcast on the network? The correct network is in between the divider and the second and third bits. So this is eight. This is a number of bits per octave. And since we borrowed six bits from the host, it will be eight plus eight plus eight plus six. Total law: 30. So our prefix is 30. Now, if we continue the sequence, it will be 192, 168, 1, 60. 192, 168, one, and 60. And on the host part, what I will do is just use this reference. Okay? One is the number following zero. Next to one in binary is 10, and the last is one. One. If we convert it to decimal, it will be 192, 1681, 192, 168, one, two, and 192, 1681, three. All of these networks have 30 nodes. And maybe you're thinking, "I thought we only need two hosts." We have four IP addresses here. Well, yeah, we have four IP addresses, but not all of these four are usable. Take note that this is a network address and it's not usable. This is also a broadcast address. It's not usable. The same as we did in the previous example. This is networked, and this is broadcast. The only address we have is 192.168.1, which is the first use of bothhost, and I'm going to assign it here for router one. The second usable IP address will be one two, and I will assign this to our router too. I will also correct this since we are changing it from 24 to 30. Specify it is now 182-1681 dot zero slash 30; this is our new network for point-to-point posting.
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