CompTIA Cloud+ CV0-003 – Section 16: troubleshooting Basics
February 23, 2023

63. Troubleshooting Basics Module Introduction

As I’m sure you recall, several of our modules really do apply to information technology in general, and this is definitely one of them. This is a very valuable module. I don’t care what discipline of IT you’re in, if it involves troubleshooting, I think you’re gonna love this module where we cover some of the fundamentals, some of the basics of troubleshooting. But these fundamentals are gonna serve you very well no matter how advanced your scenario is or what niche of technology you’re in.

64. A TS Methodology and TS Tools

You know, I just realized, I’m not kidding, this is probably one of the most important videos in this entire course, because I’m gonna teach you a troubleshooting methodology that you can actually apply to every facet of your life, not just your cloud information technology issues. Let’s take a look at this powerful methodology, and also talk about the many troubleshooting tools, we have at our disposal.

So, when it comes to a methodology that you can use for troubleshooting anything at all we’re gonna walk through a step by step process. And it all begins with identifying the problem. That’s right. And this sounds silly, it sounds like, well, my goodness, who wouldn’t think to start that way? But it is amazing just how complicated this can be, and tricky this can be, especially, in an IT/cloud type of environment. What is the real problem? Just think about those seven layers of the OSI model. My goodness, there’s the seven layers and we know that, the problem, whoops, I think, I drew eight layers. That’d be even worse. We know that if the problem is in one of the lower layers, that’s gonna make the layers above it unreachable. It can be tricky to identify what the true problem is.

The second thing we turn to do is we determine scope. Is this an issue that is affecting one element of our cloud or is it an issue that is affecting many elements? And I’ll tell you, the cloud providers often can really help you with this themselves. They’ll have some type typically of a service dashboard that’ll allow you to see globally, if the service provider is having any issues.

A third step, we typically like to progress through then is to establish a theory. Yeah, you’re gonna come up with a theory of probable cause. And this is where I think really troubleshooting starts to be referred to as kind of an art form. And I would tend to agree without sounding dramatic. It really is because the more experience you get, the more you will be able to quickly come up with a theory of probable cause based on all that great wisdom and experience that you have accumulated over the years. From an outsider looking in, this really does appear to be like some type of an art form taking place when someone’s able to look over issues and immediately go, yeah, I think this is it and be correct.

The next thing that we typically are gonna do is ‘It’s time to do some testing.’ That’s right. Patience definitely comes along with this job, and we have to patiently test this theory. It’s often a great idea not to become too in love with your theory, by the way, because we need to fairly test to see whether we were correct.

Next up, we’re going to establish a plan of action. That’s right. We are going to establish an action plan because after all, we think, we know what the issue is now. And so we are gonna come up with a plan to fix it.

By the way, we are now ready to implement that plan, or, of course, we are going to have to potentially escalate our troubleshooting efforts to a different team.

So, sure enough, the seven step is for us to verify that everything is now fully functional, and that we have solved the problem. We may need to go ahead, and do some documentation of our findings, and obviously close trouble tickets and things like that. And think about it. We may have had to make changes. So, that is something that would definitely need to be documented.

Something else that you might be doing at the end of something like this, a troubleshooting in the cloud type of scenario is you might also be really, I’ll say a ninth step analyzing the overall process, right? How did things go? And coming up with any perhaps, preventative measures that we can implement in the future.

When you think about your life, and you think about these nine steps, you realize that, my goodness, this is really something that I could apply to just about anything, right? I’m having this issue. Well, what do I think the probable cause is? Well, let me test that. Let me see if I can come up with a way to fix this fun stuff. And very-very valuable, especially, when you’re troubleshooting something as complex as the cloud.

Now, the great news is from a troubleshooting tools perspective, we don’t really have to learn all this fancy new technology. No. Let’s take an example where very-very common, we are troubleshooting connectivity to some cloud resource. Right? So here, we have AWS, for example. There is a VM inside there, and I am trying to get to and log into that happy VM. Let’s say we’re using SSH, because that box up there is a Linux box and it is running an its SSH. Easy for me to say, SSH server. And we are out here at home, and we have an SSH client and we want to be able to get into that virtual machine, of course, and we want to be able to make the required changes.

So, what happens? Well, we try the access, and nothing. I mean, nothing happens. We don’t get a single error message. Nothing. It’s like there’s nothing there. Well, what would we do in a traditional troubleshooting environment? Well, we might try PING. Yeah, the packet internet groper which speaks the ICMP protocol. And this is something that we can use to test for basic reachability. Can we even get to the virtual machine? And you know, it’s amazing, because PING is still so useful to me, and then, I just need to use it in conjunction with my knowledge of security mechanisms inside of a typical cloud.

And is there any cloud out there, that you’ve ever seen that doesn’t have some type of intense firewalling capability? Of course, the cloud technology is gonna have intense firewall and capability. Of course, it is. I mean, after all, it’s the cloud. By its very nature, it is something that can be attacked by all kinds of access points. So, it is gonna have firewall capabilities. And in the case of AWS, what we are often troubleshooting is one of two things. Now, I hate to get so AWS specific here for a moment, but there’s really no way around it, right? This, I mean, let’s face it –AWS has the most market penetration. We talked about that. And so, it’s gonna be incredibly commonly used. And this is incredibly common things that go wrong with AWS that I want you to know about. And one is the security group. So, one of your firewalls built into AWS is called a security group. And this gets attached to your virtual network interface card (vNIC). So, this is a firewall of inbound and outbound rules. And again, it gets attached to your virtual network interface card. So, this is one place where we often have to troubleshoot. For instance, you try and ping the virtual machine and you can’t ping it, even though, you know it’s up and healthy. Ah, you have to permit ICMP inbound to that virtual machine. And so now, you permit ICMP, and now the ping is working excellent, and now you’re having trouble logging in. Oh, that’s because you did not permit SSH into that security group and into the virtual machine beyond it. So, the security group is a classic example of a firewall inside of AWS that may be causing your connectivity issue and may be needing some good old-fashioned troubleshooting. But that’s not the only firewall. Just to keep you on your toes, there is network access control lists, or NACLs, inside of AWS. And these are the access control lists that we are gonna put between our subnets. So, we have the ability to create subnets in our virtual private cloud and network access control lists or firewalls that we can use to control traffic between the subnets.

Now, think about this, from a troubleshooting perspective. If we are trying to get to a virtual machine, that is in subnet A, if we’re trying to get to that virtual machine and we’re having trouble doing that, we would first check the security group. Yeah, of course we could. Because what does the network access control list do? Well, remember, it controls communication between subnets. So, we wouldn’t really have to worry about the network access control list, if we were trying to get to subnet A and we didn’t have to go through any other subnet to get there. Well, it’s probably the security group. Now, if we can get to this machine, but we’re having trouble accessing a resource in subnet B, well now, we start scrutinizing that network access control list.

Well, we got a little AWS specific there, but I think it was a valuable exercise, not only to learn those concepts about AWS, but just to paint a picture of a troubleshooting flow that you might be going through in cloud and be ready to be flexible and be ready to learn a little bit, because you are gonna encounter firewalls that are attached to various things that may be brand new concepts for you, especially, if you have not implemented firewalls in a wide variety of ways. Maybe, you’re very old school like Will Ferrell, and maybe, you’re gonna be doing things real kind of classically. So, your firewalls are hardware devices that are living in server closets. And yeah, this may be a whole new world to you. It sure is exciting. Thanks so much for watching.

65. Basic Cloud TS

By the way, did you notice that I did the same technique of intentionally not spelling out troubleshooting here? I want you to immediately think troubleshooting when you see TS that is so commonly done, especially by CompTIA. So, basic cloud troubleshooting, let’s have some fun with this doing an example.

Now, while we are gonna be using predominantly tried and true and kind of classic troubleshooting tools, we have to admit that there are gonna be tools inside of cloud services that are going to be helping us dramatically when it comes to troubleshooting. Now, one of the things that I wanted to show off inside of AWS is their Trusted Advisor feature. So, notice the troubleshooting tools that we are starting to get from cloud tech are gonna go well beyond any of the troubleshooting tools we might have classically had before. And this is a real welcome-welcome thing. As a matter of fact, let’s face it. I hate to sound like some kind of an advertising brochure here, but when it comes to cloud tech, we can’t forget we’re gonna have artificial intelligence helping us make things much-much more trouble free.

So, look at this. There is, indeed, two security recommendations for me by this Trusted Advisor service. And note that I would be getting a lot more notifications about things being wrong with cost optimization, performance, security, fault tolerance, and service limits if I paid more for this service. I am using the complimentary version that comes with AWS and is always free. Notice, in order to get all of the checks from the Trusted Advisor, I would need to upgrade my AWS support plan. So, upgrade the plan, get more Trusted Advisor checks. But it’s pretty impressive with some of the checks that I do get for free. In fact, look at this. There is a security group out there with an unrestricted specific port. So, that means, or an unrestricted port that is for someone to come in, let’s say, via SSH or HTTPS, and we’re not locking it down to a set of trusted IP addresses. So, we’re getting flagged for that. And shame on me, on the root account of my AWS, that is the godlike administrator account, that root account is not protected with multifactor authentication.

So, notice, I’m getting some great troubleshooting recommendations right out of the Trusted Advisor. And how cool is this? It will link you right to the documentation that you would need that’s gonna walk you through exactly how to troubleshoot that particular missing ingredient.

Notice how wonderful things like this are gonna be for us to remain in compliance. And in fact, I wonder if we were to type compliance, I’m sure there are many suggested services, yep, there sure are, that we would be directed to, including a System Manager feature called Compliance. The Systems Manager is one of those many tools inside of AWS now that would help you to manage and then subsequently troubleshoot entire fleets of, like, EC2 systems. And so, really-really intense now what is at our fingertips when it comes to our cloud resources and the incredible measures that we can take to ensure that we are trouble free, and if trouble should happen, that we can respond as quickly as possible. Thanks so much for watching.

66. TS VM Connections

I wish that this video wasn’t pretty much a requirement for Cloud+. Yeah, this really is. You know, when you start working with cloud technologies you are inevitably going to be working at some point with virtual machines. And inevitably you’ll be having a challenge I’m thinking at some point attempting to connect to one of your virtual machines. Let’s go through a typical troubleshooting scenario and let’s make sure we understand the types of issues that could present themselves.

So, the most thorough way I think we can approach a topic like this is to go ahead and really have some fun with this. Let’s go to our view of our instances here, our EC2 instances in AWS, and notice I’ll go ahead and use AWS in our example here. And the same principles are gonna be applying to no matter what cloud technology you’re using and we’re gonna say launch instance. Now as we go through and spin up an instance right now I’m going to be covering with you some areas of trouble. That’s right. Potential trouble.

All right, let’s go ahead and start by naming our EC2 instance. I will say myinstance because I am not feeling all that creative right now on naming. So let’s do myinstance. There we go.

Okay, now what about AMI? What about an Amazon Machine Image that we are going to be running? What should we run? Let’s do a Windows example. So notice, we have just had some details change about how they’re gonna set up this virtual machine for us. Pretty interesting. Okay, so we’re doing Windows. Its name is myinstance. Nothing here really could get us into trouble at this point. We’re gonna do a free tier eligible version of Windows Server 2019 base.

Now, if you wanted to change that, for instance, hey this would be neat to look at. It’s not free tier eligible but it would still be pretty cool to take a peek at and we will be sure to not leave it running. But here’s Windows server, once again, it’s gonna change some options for us and that’s just fine. But now we’re looking at the full blown Windows server 2019 and it gets better. There’s SQL Server 2019 standard pre-installed already to go in that image. That is so cool.

Notice this will run on a free tier eligible t2.micro. I might wanna bump that up a little bit. You can certainly play with things like this just to see the differences that you would receive in performance. Let’s bump it up to, how about t2.medium. So we’ll go up to 4 gigs of RAM there. Again, I wouldn’t leave this running so I’m not really too concerned about price.

Now, here is a big area of problems and an area where we often need to troubleshoot and that is on the key pair. Notice, when we create a key pair we have to give a key pair a name. I’ll say mykeypair. And notice that we can do the .pem format for something like OpenSSH, or this is a relatively new feature, they create a .ppk file for you for use with PuTTY. That’s pretty cool. So, that’s great that we can get the .ppk file generated for us. I’ll actually try that. And so we create this key pair and notice this key pair downloads to my local system.

Now, I wanna go ahead and take a look at that file inside of the Windows Explorer because I need to emphasize something to you. And that is another point of troubleshooting kind of nightmare, actually. And that is. Notice that that went to the Downloads folder and there it is. If the permissions on the Downloads folder are too broad, then AWS will not allow me to use this key pair to connect to my Windows server. So, that is a huge point of troubleshooting right there. We need to make sure that the permission on that file are not too wide open. And, of course, you can always check permissions in Windows by going to the Security tab of Properties. Notice it’s the system that has full control. It’s me that has full control and it’s the administrator’s group that has full control. So, that is certainly not gonna be too wide open for AWS to complain about. Settings that would be problematic would be something like all authenticated users can access this resource or something like that. And AWS is going to detect that wide open security and it’s not gonna allow you to make the connection. So there’s Amazon really helping us out there. Okay, so I know that I have that key pair. I know where it is. I know the permissions are not too open. That’s perfect.

Now, notice what it is doing here. It is suggesting the security group or firewall settings that would be appropriate. And that is to allow our Microsoft SQL server traffic and our RDP traffic so we can get to the box. Now, notice this is being allowed from anywhere.

So, I can do, what is my IP? And this website will show me my public IP address of course, and I could lock it down to my public IP. So, there is my public IP at the moment that, of course, changes all the time but right now I have that public IP and that is great because I’m gonna go in and I’m going to say, look, we want to do only permitting of that address. So, there we go. We’re gonna give all 32 bits of the IP address and then I am going to go ahead and give a 32-bit mask. And that’s obviously going to enable the behavior we need there. And it looks like I need to add it in there properly because I didn’t do it properly before. You gotta click on it. Make sure it’s listed under there. There we go. And so that’s really good strong security. It’s gonna be RDP or Microsoft’s SQL traffic from me.

All right, 1×65 gig SSD. Wow, that’s impressive. Again, I’m not gonna worry too much about this because we’ll actually tear this down in the very next video. So, and I encourage you to do that as well. If you’re following along with these exact settings this machine might get a little pricey. So, yeah, make sure you shut it down and then tear it down when we’re done experimenting with it.

All right, some advanced details. We don’t have anything in here we need to discuss or worry about. So, it looks like we’re ready to launch our instance. Now I’m gonna show you a couple more things here, of course, that could go wrong. And wow, look at this.

Look at this. That’s interested, right? So, they could not launch this for us and that’s because the t2.medium, that’s not beefy enough for Microsoft SQL Server. Isn’t that amazing? So, I’m gonna go right in and edit the instance config. And it’s kind of funny because they were initially suggesting it be on a t2.micro. So they, being Amazon needed to work on this a little bit.

So let me do this. Let me scroll down and grab something we know it would be able to run on. We’re gonna step it up. I’m not gonna do anything too crazy here but why don’t we look at the, how about the compute family? That would be good. And I’ll do, how about, how about this c5a.large, 2 virtual CPUs, 4 gigs of memory. I’m thinking that box is going to have enough horsepower and resources and the appropriate CPU type and family, where EC2 is not gonna have a problem with it. And sure enough, it doesn’t.

So now I’m gonna click on Instances because we should see, after we refresh perhaps a couple of times, we should see that instance that we just created. And there it is. Its name, if you recall, is myinstance.

So, what about connecting to this instance? Well, notice if you click on the instance ID, I always love to do this because now I’m really focused in on the properties of myinstance. And we’re seeing some really important things here from a connectivity standpoint.

Notice there’s our public IPv4 DNS. So there is a way that we can get to our machine. Look at that. And you can see our public IPv4 address. So, we automatically got this public IPv4 address so that we can connect to this machine. We’re in the default VPC. That’s pretty important to know. Notice how many of these settings, they just kind of went right by, right? We’re not even fully aware of them. So that’s why I always love to visit this properties page. Now, it’s time to connect though, my goodness. We wanna make sure we can connect.

Now, notice the session manager for SSH and those types of things is not gonna be an option here. And that’s because we are dealing with a Windows box in this demonstration. So, we need to download the remote desktop file that is going to bring us to this machine in the cloud. So there I have the remote desktop file. Now, how are we gonna log in? Well with the username of Administrator but notice I need to click here to get the password. And notice it’s gonna take about four minutes after launching for the auto generated password to be available.

So, now we have to just kind of come back here. Let me go back into the properties of the instance and we’ll just wait a couple of moments. I’ll pause the video and then we’ll try our RDP connection with the automatically generated password.

All right, it worked as advertised. So, I clicked on that get password and it brought me to this screen. And trust me, that will take a full four minutes. So, you might wanna walk away because it’ll take a real long time. Four minutes takes real slow when you’re just sitting here hitting the refresh button.

All right, so know what we have to do. In order to generate this password, we have to browse to none other than that key pair that we downloaded. So, where is that thing? And oh, this is interesting. Notice it’s looking for, yeah, it’s looking for the mykeypair. So, no problem. We just gotta go find it. Let’s go. I left that in the Downloads folder. And where is it? Let’s see. It’s looking by default for .pem files but I can just say, look, we did a .ppk. Let’s see if it’ll accept that. And I’m betting it will, even though it’s not in the .pem format because they let us put it in the .ppk format. Now, let’s try decrypt password.

Let’s see, let me try that again. Think I clicked something incorrectly there. All right, there’s the key pair. We’re gonna open that. Okay. And then I’m gonna click Decrypt. And let’s see. Ah, so look at this. It is not liking the .ppk format. Wow. So, this is a little bit of a problem, isn’t it? Because we need that in the pem. format to be able to have this password generation take place. So, sure enough, here’s some troubleshooting.

So, no problem. You could see that I was able to feed the correct file in and decrypt the password. Now how did I do it? Well, I had to convert the .ppk to a .pem. And here’s how easy it is to do that. If you download and install PuTTY you will get a companion application along with PuTTY called PuTTYgen. And PuTTYgen is a key generator. So, all I had to do was load the .ppk format file into this PuTTY key generator. And then I just had to say under the conversions menu Export OpenSSH key. And then I just went ahead and said, ‘Go ahead and save that as a .pem’, and now you have the format that you need. How wonderful.

Okay, so we can then paste that in and we can get the administrator password and finally, talk about troubleshooting, finally, we are ready to go into our Downloads and double click the RDP and choose Connect. And for the username and password that we are gonna be prompted with here we’re gonna choose the password that we have on the clipboard and it’s already filled in the Administrator. I’ll say ‘Remember me’ and say ‘OK’. We’re gonna say ‘Yes, we trust this machine’ and we’ve done it. We have made a connection into this wonderful Windows server system. And remember, it’s running SQL Server all pre-installed. That’s pretty exciting.

All right, now what I’d like to demonstrate to you is if you need to manipulate security groups I wanna show you how you would troubleshoot that and I wanna show you some aspects of that before we wrap this up. Notice pretty funny, this thing is like, ‘Hey, I’m not done setting up here’. You know, like, ‘Finish setting me up. I need to be told what kind of network I’m connecting to and all that stuff.’ So, here we have this wonderful Windows server system. So cool. And by the way, might as well just really quick check for the SQL server. Yep, there it is. Look at that. SQL server all pre-installed and configured just like they said it would be. That is so cool

All right, so what is the public IP address of this machine? Well, I’ll tell you what, I’m gonna write that down because one of the things I wanted to walk you through was showing you how to make a resource like this ping-able. That’s right, ping-able. So, we can do reachability testing. So I’m gonna copy down the public IP. It is Okay, I’ve got that copied down. So now what I’m gonna do is let’s see if we can reach that resource, right?

So I’m gonna go and fire up a command prompt. Come on, command prompt, where are you? There you are. Perfect. And what we’re gonna do in this command prompt as you probably already know is I am going to ping that address. Let’s see if we can test the reachability of that VM with ping. This is using the ICMP protocol in order to test the reachability. And what do we meet with? We meet with no success. Now doesn’t this stink? Yeah, this stinks because it’s looking like that virtual machine is down but we know it’s not down. It’s up there, it’s waiting, it’s excited, it’s ready to help us with our SQL server needs and all that stuff. So, this stinks. What’s happening?

Well, our security group does not permit ping, does not permit ICMP. So, we have to troubleshoot our security group if our plan is to allow ping to test reachability of this system.

Okay, well let’s go back to our instances. In fact, I could have saved myself time and just clicked right on the instance ID. And let’s remind ourselves of the security group that is assigned to the network interface card on this VM. There it is. It’s the launch-wizard-4 security group. Okay, let me click on that and we will certainly now be focused on that security group. And let me go ahead and edit the inbound rules and let me add a rule that says we will permit ICMP using IP version four and we will permit that from, once again, we can lock it down to our management workstation’s address. So I will just copy that to the clipboard and we are going to go ahead and paste that in and lock it down to ICMP or ping traffic from my specific system.

So, notice I change those rules. Now here’s a big question that students always have for me at this stage, and that is, are the rules going to take effect right away? Notice, we are now permitting all ICMP for IPv4 inbound from my workstation. And is it ready? Is this right away gonna work? It should, yes.

So, you can now go right back to the test that you so desperately wanted to do in the first place and that is test the reachability of your network resource. Now I’m glad it’s not working because that means we have something more that we need to troubleshoot here, for sure. Yeah, it is not working. And by the way, you would always want to make sure that you have the IP address correct, right? That would be awfully embarrassing if we were pinging the wrong IP address. So I’m gonna go back in here. Let’s go up to the E2C dashboard. Let’s go to our running instance and we’re gonna click on that instance ID and I just wanna make darn sure I’ve got the correct public IPv4 address. I do. And that means then that we are having some other issue. Yeah, we’re having some other issue. Now, I just thought of one thing that could be our issue, and that is, are we too strict on the source of that ICMP traffic? I bet you we are, especially considering I’m not 100% sure on what IP address that is gonna be using for a source. So, let’s do this. Let’s just make sure we didn’t make the security group settings overly strict. That’s something that’s gonna be very easy for us to manipulate.

So, I’ll go back into our security group and I will go ahead and select the rule that we added for ICMP. And I’m gonna edit the inbound rules and we’ll just go ahead and relax this requirement of coming in from a very specific address. Let’s just relax that to anywhere and see if that specific rule setting was our challenge. All right, so we’ve made the change.

Remember, no need to wait. It should be in effect right away if it’s gonna work and we will retry the ping. Okay, look at that. So, the source IP address, being very-very strict and locked down to one IP, was not the issue. All right, great. Love troubleshooting. And we can’t give up. We gotta keep going here. We gotta make sure this ping is going to work.

Well, one of the reasons I love this demonstration is it really gets us thinking in the vein of a cloud troubleshooter. Think about what we just ensured, that we are allowing ICMP traffic through the firewall in AWS, but what about the firewall in Windows? Yeah, let’s go in and look at the firewall settings that are in this Windows box that we set up because, my goodness, it better allows ICMP traffic, or the operating system here will kill it. And let’s look for apps that are allowed to communicate through the firewall. And look at this. Sure enough, I don’t see ICMP. And a lot of times ICMP is not gonna be permitted to a server like this to guard against some type of an attack that is utilizing it. So, I can say I want to Allow another app. And, actually, there’s an easier way to do this, isn’t there? I’m just gonna go ahead in here. And they actually should already have ICMP defined, I believe, and it looks like they don’t. Interesting. So let’s see. What’s gonna be the easiest way to do this? I’m thinking we need a more advanced tool.

We get a little, there we go. Windows Defender Firewall with advanced security. That looks more like what we would need. We’re getting a little bonus here on some Windows kind of manipulations. All right, here’s our Inbound Rules. This is exactly what we want. I’m gonna say we have a new inbound rule in this firewall and we are going to go ahead and focus in on a custom rule. And this custom rule that we are creating is for a certain service. No, not a certain service. It’s going to be for All programs. Yeah, any traffic. And look at this. This is where we can set up our parameters. We are gonna permit ICMPv4. Notice you could even get very, very specific on what you permit, but I can be very general and just say ‘I want to permit all ICMPv4 to any address and I want to Allow the connection.’ And I’ll apply it to all of the potential networks. I’ll say ICMP. Now notice in my demonstration here, of course, just for brevity and for the ease of the demonstration and stuff like that, notice that I don’t make these real strong security settings so I’m just allowing all ICMP here, which is very lazy, but I’m just trying to save a little time.

Okay, it’s time to test. Now we’ve doctored up not one, but two firewalls that were presenting challenges to us here. Well, one of the reasons I love troubleshooting is it definitely adds a bit of excitement to my day. This is a very exciting moment here. We are going to ping that IP address and look at that. We meet with success. How great! So, we got in to our virtual machine but then the troubleshooting really ramped up when we just tried to do the simple thing of allowing us to be able to ping to test reachability of the virtual machine. And we saw that that was a challenge because we had to punch a hole in the security group, a firewall attached to the virtual network card, and then we had to punch a hole in the firewall built into Windows, thank you very much, to allow the ICMP traffic. So, this gives you an idea of the types of troubleshooting maneuvers we’re commonly making in a cloud environment. Thanks so much for watching.

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