December 19, 2022

1. 1_1- Basic Switching Concepts

Hello everyone. Welcome to the OKL Cisco CCMP Switch Course. The CCMP certification exam is divided into three parts: switch, route, and T-shirt. And we are going to start with the switch part, and this first section will be about the basic switching concepts. We are starting with the hub. A hub is a common connection point for devices in a network, and hubs are devices commonly used to connect segments of a local area network. The hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other port so that all segments of the local area network can see all packets. As you see in the picture, we have a hub and four ports for the devices. If port one wants to communicate with port four, for example, the packet is fluid to send to port three as well. And as you can see, that’s an inefficient use of the bandwidth. The second device we are going to talk about is the Switch. A network switch is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to a destination device.

A network switch is a multiple network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at link layer two of the OSI module, and you can see a switch in this picture. This switch can be on OSI layer two or layer three as well. If we are talking about the layer-3 switch, that’s a multilayer switch, which can also make routing as well. Layer 2 switches use the Mac table to perform switching. They keep Mac address tables and forward the packets between ports using that Mac address table. As a result, we can make better use of our bandwidth. And these devices can also provide power over Ethernet for the security operations, which we are going to talk about later in detail. Let’s take a look at the broadcast domain. A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcasting at the datalink layer. The broadcast domain can be within the same local area network segment or it can be bridged to other local network segments.

Any computer connected to the same switch is a member of the same broadcast domain. Further, any computer connected to the same set of interconnected switches is a member of the same broadcast domain. Please pay attention to the fact that routers and other higher-layered devices form boundaries between broadcast domains, separating Villan’s device broadcast domains as well. Let’s take a look at the picture. Now we have four broadcast domains. I’m sorry, we have three broadcast domains in here, and as you can see, we have a boundary device, which is a router, in here, and also boundaries for the broadcast domain too. Let’s take a look at the Mac addresses.

Now, a Mac address of a computer or printer or something else on a network device is a six-byte unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. Mega devices are used as a network address for most IEEE network technologies, including Ethernet and etwork address Mac addresses are used in the media access control protocol sublayer of the OSI module. An organizationally unique identifier is a 24-bit number that uniquely identifies a vendor, manufacturer, or other organization. As you can see, the first portion of the Mac address is an organizationally unique identifier, and the other portion is a universally administered address. A universally administered address is uniquely assigned to a device by its manufacturer, and that’s it. And that’s the second portion. Let’s take a look at the Ethernet frame right now. Ethernet frame consists of some fields, as you can see in the picture, including the preamble, SFD receiver, Mac, Sender Mac, optional villaintech and type fields, payload, and CRC checksum.

For example, let’s take a look at the preamble first. The preamble communicates to the receiving devices whether a frame is coming and provides synchronization. The second field is Sft, which is the start of frame delemeter. Start of frame deliver is responsible for specifying the beginning of the destination Mac address in the next bike, and the other fields are receiver and sender Mac and an optional villain tech. And we have a type field in here, and we have a payload pad and a CRC checksum. Let’s take a look at the basic switching process right now. If the destination Mac address is found in the cam table of the switch, the switch sends the frame out of the corresponding port. This process is called “forwarding.” If the destination Mac address cannot be found in the camp table, the frame is sent to all other ports in the same domain, and this process is called floating. If the destination Mac address of the receipt receiving frame is the broadcast address, which is Ffff, This time the frame is sent to all the ports in the same villain, and this process is also called floating.

2. 1_2- VLAN and Trunking

In this section, we are going to talk about VLANs and tracking. On the first days of my networking career, it was difficult for me to understand why we used VLAN, but as time passed, it became easier to take it seriously. Generally, we are making virtual local area networks on the same switch and making them communicate. The main reason that we’re using Villians is to separate the broadcast traffic. As you know, on a local area network, broadcasts are not forwarded over a router. But if you use villain, you don’t need a router to elevate the broadcast traffic as well. You can use villains on the same switch, and broadcast traffic is not forwarded between the villains each villain has on its broadcast traffic. And villains also provide isolation for us too. As you may know, without a Layer 3 device, different villains cannot communicate with one another.

For example, if we have a layer 2 switch, and that’s the first port, and that’s the fourth port, and if they are in different zones, they cannot communicate with each other without a layer 3 device. In addition to providing isolation, the benefits of using VLAN include easy management through user segmentation and error detection. better performance, cost reduction because we have less route on it, and security as well. Let us now examine the Villan tracking. Tracking works at layer two of the OSI reference module and carries multivariate information between the villains. Each frame sets the villain’s information, and that’s known as “tagging two.” In the picture, we have gig zero-three, gig one, and gig two. Gig one and Gig two are access ports, which means that you can carry just one wheel. And because gig three is a trunk port, it can carry multiple villain identities. 

3. 1_3- Multi Layer Switching

Guys. Three additional network switches operate at layer two of the OSI module, while network routers operate at layer three. As you know, a layer-3 switch is a specialized hardware device with routing capabilities. For this purpose, we need to configure an interface called the SVI Switch virtual interface for Havilland and put an IP address on it. This IP address can be used by computers as their default gateway. Let’s take a look at the layer 3 switching configuration right now. First, we need to start by typing the IP routing command on our multilayer switch.

If you forget this, your switch won’t build a routing table. Then we create SVIS Switch virtual interfaces and define the proper IP addresses for SVIS. And those IP addresses are set as the clients’ default gateway. For example, here we are defining an interface villain of 20. This is an SVI. Then we are defining an interface, VLAN 30. This is SVI also, and we are defining interface VLAN 40. This is another SVI. Okay, we are defining the SVIS. Then we’ll assign our IP addresses here. As you can see, each SVI will have a different IP address, and these IP addresses will be configured as the default gateways. On the client side, you can see, okay, that’s the same logic with the router and stake. The difference is that we are creating sus rather than sub interfaces. 

4. LAB : Multi Layer Switching Configuration

In this section, we will configure multilayer switching on packet tracer and conduct a lab on it. We have three steps to accomplish, and in the first step, we need to assign the villains to the switch ports as shown in the figure. In the second, we are going to try to ping PC Two from PC One. In the third step, we must configure the multilayer switch pink from PC 2 to all other pieces.

All right, guys, what I’m going to do first is assign the VLANs to the switch ports as shown in the figure. Okay, I’m going to do it, and let’s see what’s going on. I’m opening my packet tracer. I’ll interface fast Ethernet four, switch port mode access, switch port access, wheel, and ten five switch Portman access, switch port access, wheel, and 26 will be in wheel in 30. Right. Okay, the first step is to try to ping PC 2 from PC 1. This is PC One. And this is PC Two. Okay, I will go to PC One, and I’m going to room 53. There’s no, no pink. The request timed out; no pink. But I accomplished this step. Why no pink? because this layer is acting as a layer to switch. Different villains cannot communicate with each other. If I want to communicate between networks and am only using a layer-two switch, I must also use a layer-three device, such as a router or a multilayer switch with capability. Right, okay. In my packet researcher topology, I’m using a multilayer switch capability switch, not just a layer-two one.

So I’m going to configure the multilayer switching capabilities on that switch and try to transfer pink from PC to other pieces to see what happens. So the first thing I should do on the multilayer switch is enable routing. Secondly, I’m going to create the wheel and interfaces, and I’m going to attach these gateway IP addresses to the VLAN interface IP addresses. Okay, let’s go again on this switch. What I’m going to do is first type “IP routing” in this comment. This guy is not yet ready to make layer three things. Okay. Second, I’m going to define the interface villain ten.

And interface 10 will have a 40 dot one IP address. Then Villan 20 will have an IP address of 50 dot 1, and Walloon 30 will have an IP address of 60 dot 1. So I’m going to PC-2 again. I’m opening my comment prompt and trying the pink PC One’s IP address. Let’s see if the pink is going correctly or not. And yes, as you can see, I’m receiving the reply packets from PC 1, and let’s take a look at PC 32. I’m sorry, pink 69, I think. Yes, it’s okay. That’s really what I’m expecting to see. In the first step, I haven’t configured layer-three IP routing on this switch, and so this guy behaves like a regular layer-two switch. Then I configured the IP routing feature and created the villain interfaces as the default gateway on this switch, and after that, the pieces were able to ping the absence. That’s what I really want to see.

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