CQE: Certified Quality Engineer Certification Video Training Course Outline
**** Section I - Management and ...
**** Section II - The Quality Sy...
**** Section III Product, Proces...
**** Section IV. Product and Pro...
**** Section V. Continuous Impro...
**** Section VI. Quantitative Me...
**** Section VII. Risk Managemen...
**** Section I - Management and Leadership (18 Questions) ****
CQE: Certified Quality Engineer Certification Video Training Course Info
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Section I - Management and Leadership (18 Questions)
8. 1A-1 Deming's 14 Points of Leadership - Part 4
So the previous three principles were: institute leadership, drive out fear, and remove barriers. So those were principle numbers seven, eight, and nine. Now coming to principle number ten, which is to eliminate numeric goals, posters, and slogans, You've probably seen posters all over the place telling us that we need to do our jobs well, that we should strive for zero defects, and that we should do this. What that means is that in that organization, workers will assume that it is they who need to do a good job. Those are being targeted. So that message is from management to workers: workers should make zero defects. What Deming assumed was that if you have a quality problem, that quality problem is, most of the time, due to systems and processes rather than workers. So you don't need to target workers for the quality problems. That's what these posters and slogans do. These posters and slogans basically tell orassume that the people are the problem. rather than that. Deming thinks the system is the problem. If you have a problem, then you need to look at the system. You need to look at processes. So that's why Deming was against the posters and slogans. The second thing was to eliminate numeric goals. So if you have goals such as, let's say, needing to have a weld repair rate less than 1%, Now the question comes where from this 1% has come. Did we change any systems? So if the weld repair rate was 5%, and then we put a target of 1%, on what basis did we change any systems? Did we change any processes? Did we change the machinery? What did we do to change the target from the existing 5% to 1%? So what Deming was in favour of was eliminating these numerical goals rather than working on the issue, solving that issue, looking where the problem is, and solving that rather than randomly putting some numbers as a numerical goal. So this was principle number ten, which is to eliminate numeric goals, posters, and slogans because these things demotivate people. We now come to the next principle, which is principle number eleven, and which says that we should eliminate numeric quotas. Earlier we talked about numeric goals. Here we are talking of numeric quotas. The context is related to the production quota: how many items we need to produce in a day. So if you have those quotas, which you need to produce, then that basically forces people to make those numbers of items, irrespective of good or bad quality. Rather than imposing numerical quotas with no basis, we should eliminate them and examine what our system produces, where the bottlenecks are, and how we can improve the production rate. Because if you are unable to meet that number, that quota, that number of sales, or that number of production, the only thing that happens is that it demotivates people. And basically, that pushes people to do a bad job. So this was principle number eleven, which was eliminating numeric quotas. On to the next principle, which is principle number twelve. We say that removing barriers fosters pride in workmanship. So this particular principle has been split into two pieces, A and B. Part A is related to hourly workers, people who do the job, and part B is related to people in management. And both of these are related to removing barriers to their right to pride of workmanship. What management needs to do is not do something that basically removes the pride these people have in their work, whether they are hourly workers or management. So when it comes to pride of workmanship, everyone is proud of his or her work. But things go bad when people are competing against each other. So if you have a group of people, let's say that you have four people in a department, and these four people compete against each other, then let's say one person is a winner. One person would have produced a greater number of items, one person would have produced a lesser number of defects, one person would have produced a greater number of sales—whatever this person has done. So one person becomes a winner in that department or function. Recognizing that as a winner basically means demotivating the other three people. But instead of competing against each other, if these people are working together as a group, as a team, then you can achieve much more than by competing against each other. So this was Principle Number Twelve, which removed barriers to pride in workmanship. So with that, we are left with two more principles. Principle numbers 13 and 14 Let's look at those in the next video. Bye.
9. 1A-1 Deming's 14 Points of Leadership - Part 5
In the previous three points, we talked about the elimination of goals, quotas, posters, slogans, and annual merit ratings so that people feel proud of their work. So that's what we learned in the previous three principles. Now coming to principle number 13, which is education and retraining, If you remember earlier when we talked about principle number six, which was on-the-job training, So that was one type of training. And we said that there are two training-related principles. in these 14 principles. Principle number six is related to on-the-job training. And this particular principle, which is Principle Number 13, is for education and retraining. Six was focused on on-the-job training so that people can do whatever they are doing in a better way. Deming discusses education and retraining in principle number 13 so that people can learn new skills, characteristics, and things. So here's what Deming is suggesting. To institute a vigorous programme of education and self-improvement, encourage people to learn new skills to face future challenges. Things are changing. Whatever you would have seen in 1960 or 1970, when all these principles were developed, from that time to this, if you see artificial intelligence, laptops, computers, or machine learning, all these new things have come. So workers, if they are not retrained or educated, probably will not be able to manage the current challenges. So this was principle number 13, which is education and retraining, so that people can learn new skills and face the challenges of the future. Coming to the next one, which is principle number 14, which is taking action, What we have said in these 13 principles, from principle number one, where we talked about the vision, to principle number 14, where we are talking about taking action, So whatever has been learned from these 13 principles, management needs to take action. And what Damon is suggesting is that if you need to work on all these 14 principles rather than selectively picking and choosing, if you really want to make a big change in the organization, then all these 14 principles must be implemented together rather than done on a piecemeal basis. So take action, which is principle number 14. Put everything in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everyone's job, starting with the top management. People will be sceptical till they see changes. So yes, it takes time for people to see those changes, but then leadership or management must make sure that all these points are implemented, changes are being made, and everyone is involved in that. That will basically lead to a big change in the organization. These were the 14 principles provided by Dr. Damien.
10. 1A-1 Quality Guru - Joseph Juran
So previously, we talked about Dr. Deming and the 14 principles of management. And if you remember at the very beginning of this section, we said that we would be covering three quality gurus in this section, which are Edwards Deming, Joseph Jorahan, and Philip Crosby. So we have already covered the life and 14 principles of Edwards Deming. Now let's move on to the next quality guru, which is Joseph Duran. Let's start with the life history of Dr. Joseph Duran. Duran joined Western Electric in the 1920s. So this is the same company, which Deming also joined earlier. And Dr. Jonathan is famous for his quality control handbook. So he has put all of his teachings, all of the things he wants to teach, in his quality handbook. This quality handbook gets revised from time to time. So the latest edition of this handbook is the 7th edition of the Quality Control Handbook. Even though Dr. Juron is not alive at this time, this handbook gets published over, let's say, three or four years. Every three or four years, a new edition comes out. So the first edition of that was published. If you get a chance, buy this book from Amazon. And this is basically a good book to refer to in almost any case—whatever quality-related issue you want to look at, this handbook will help you in that. And just like Dr.Naming, Jurors also taught qualityto Japanese in 60 period. So that was the brief history of Joseph Duran. And Joseph Duran is famous for The Ten Steps of Quality Improvement: A Quality Control Handbook, about which we already talked earlier. Duran's trilogy, Juron was in favour of a project-by-project approach for quality improvement. And if you look today, the Six Sigma approach to improvement is the same, where you go project by project and improve the process. And Duran implemented Pareto Principle which is80 20 principles in quality management. And what he wanted to convey there was that 80% of the problems are because of 20% of the causes. So, removing those 20% of the causes will solve 80% of your problems. So that's what you need to look at to see where most of your problems are coming from. So this was the use of Pareto principle inquality management which was proposed by Joseph Duran's. And the definition of quality, as per Joseph Juron, is fitness for use. So once we move to the next quality guru, which is Philip Crosby, there you will see that Philip Crosby is in favour of the definition of quality as conformance to requirements. So Philip Crosby is in favour of conformance to requirements. A jury has defined quality in terms of fitness for use. So this was a brief history of Joseph Geran, now related to Joseph Jon's philosophies. We will be quickly going through two things here. One is the 10th step of quality improvement. We will quickly scan through those ten steps, and then we will talk about Juran Trelogy. Let's do that and start with ten stepsof quality improvement in the next videos.
11. 1A-1 Juran's 10 Points of Improvement
So, as we earlier talked, this is one of the important contributions of Joseph Duran, which is the "ten steps of quality improvement." Now, if you look at Six Sigma, you would see that some of these things match with how Six Sigma projects are done. Earlier, we said that Juron was in favour of project-by-project improvement. That's what we do in Six Sigma, and that is what you will see here in these ten steps. Also, improvement comes project by project. So you select a problem, identify the project, do that project, communicate, recognize, and implement. So these are the sort of steps you take when you do project-by-project improvement. So let's quickly look at the steps suggested by Jeron. The first step is to build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement. That's a basic thing management needs to do to build that awareness that we need to improve. The current status is not good; improvement is good. So that's something that management needs to convey: that anything or everything we do has a chance of improvement. So that's basically building the awareness. That's Step Number One for any quality improvement. You then set goals for your improvement because you can't just start improving here and there. So you just need to have a broad strategy. That's what we need to improve so that we achieve the company's objective. And then the next step, which is step number three, is organization. To reach the goal, you need to organise things. And then number four is providing training. Number five is carrying out the project to solve the problem. So you'd probably choose a specific project first. You do the improvement, and then you solve the problem. Once you've done that, you report the progress. What existed prior to improvement, and what was the status of this process following improvement? So you make a report about that. You recognise people who were involved in that. You communicate this result to the organisation so that others can also look at it and get motivated to improve their own processes. So this is step number eight. Step nine was to keep track of the improvements made so that you could create a scorecard. That is what all improvements have achieved. And then number ten is "maintain momentum" so that you keep on doing improvements project by project. So this is briefly what I would say: there are ten steps you need to take to improve any process for quality improvement. So, with that, we completed it. one particular contribution of Dr. Juran. The next one is Juron trilogy. Let's look at that on the next video.
12. 1A-1 Juran's Trilogy
Welcome to Dr. Joseph Juron's next contribution, the Juron Trilogy. Duran Trilogy is an approach to improvement. Quality consists of basically three aspects: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. So you need to look at quality from these three perspectives. The first thing you do is plan. Put your goals here, that is, what you want to achieve; what is your target? That's the quality-plan part of that. And the next aspect of quality is quality control, where you meet those set goals. So whatever goals you have set, you meet those during operation. And the third aspect of quality is quality improvement. Improve quality by taking it to the next level and controlling it within that improved range. Duran has shown the quality of his trilogy in the form of a picture. So if you look at the right side of the slide, you will see the Duran Trilogy pictorial view. Let's start with quality control here. So what you do is, once you have identified the goal, you have some sort of upper or lower limit, and you keep your process under control in that range. So this is how it's demonstrated somewhere here in this zone. So if you look at this zone here, your process is in control. So there is an upper limit, there is a lower limit, and your process is moving within these two limits. So this is a part of quality control. Of course, quality planning came first, in which you planned for quality. Then in quality control, you control that within a specific range. And every now and then, there is a problem. Somehow the process gets upset, and you get some sort of sporadic spikes. So you get this spike, some defects—too many defects at a particular time. So once you get this sort of high level of defects or spikes, you get alerted, take action, and bring your process back to its original limits. So here, if you see the process has been brought back to the original limit within the upper and lower ranges, this is how your quality control works. Then as the next step, you take some quality improvement initiatives, you do some projects, and you make some improvements. Your defect rate, repair rate, or quality cost will decrease as a result of these enhancements. So this is how you see it as a part of quality improvement. So once you have done the quality improvement, your defect rate goes down, and your cost of poor quality goes down. Now, in this improved range, you get a new range. Earlier, this was your upper and lower limit, and now because of improvement, your upper and lower limits have gone down here. So this is because of quality improvement. And now you control your process within this range—within these new upper and lower limits. During this quality improvement process, you learn something. Whatever learning is there, that goes as a lesson learned and goes back to quality planning for the next improvement process. And this is how you keep on improving the process. You plan something, you control your process within the control limits, and you manage that if there's any change. You bring the process back to the control limit, make improvements, and control the process in the new range. Then, based on that, you apply any improvements you discover as lessons learned to the planning process. So this is how you keep on improving your process. So this is Juron's trilogy consisting of three parts: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. So with that, we finished our discussion about Dr. Joseph Duran, the next quality guru, which we will be talking about on the next video, which will be Philip Crosby. Let's look at the life history of Philip Crosby in the next video.
13. 1A-1 Quality Guru - Philip Crosby
So far in this course, we have talked about Edward Deeming; we talked about the 14 Principles of Deming; and then we talked about Joseph Juron. There. We looked at ten steps of quality improvement, and we talked about quality logic. And now we are moving to the next quality guru, which is Philip Crosby. and in this section we will learn about the life history of Philip Crosby. And also, we will look at the very important contribution of Philip Crosby, which is comprised of four absolutes of quality. Let's start with the life history of Philip Crosby. If you remember earlier, Duran and Damien's contributions were mostly in the 1950s and 1960s, when they visited Japan and helped improve its quality. Whereas if you look at Philip Crosby, his actual work started somewhere in the 80s. That's where he published his first book, Quality is Free, which made him famous and sold more than a million copies. So if you look at the history of Philip Crossley, you would see that in 1952 he started his first job in the field of quality as a test technician with Crossley Corporation. That's where he started, and then he became a consultant in 1979, quality consultant.And that's when he published his first book, which was Quality Is Free. In addition to this book, Quality is Free, another famous book is Quality Without Tears. And of course, he has published many more books. So these are just two important books, key contributions. And one of his important contributions, which basically summarises quality, is to define the absolutes of quality. So that's something that you will be learning in the next video. And in addition to that, if you remember earlier when we talked about Joseph Duran, we talked about how Duran's definition of quality was fitness for use, whereas Philip Crosby was in favour of defining quality as conformance to specifications. So engineering defines the specification; production meets the specification. So that's how he defined quality. So with this brief history about Philip Crosby, let's move on to the next video and learn about the four absolutes of quality produced by Philip Crosby.
14. 1A-1 Crosby's Four Absolutes of Quality
after looking at a quick and brief history of Philip Crosby. Now let's look at his one important contribution, which was four absolutes of quality. How do we achieve quality? These four aspects basically summarise the way to achieve quality. These are four absolutes. So let's quickly read that, and then on the next four slides we will talk about this in more detail. So the first one is the definition of quality: conformance, two requirements. We talked about that earlier as well. That's how Philip Crossby defined quality: conformance to requirements. The system of quality is prevention, not appraisal. Number three is the performance standard of zero defects. So that should be your target. Your target should be zero defects. And number four is the measurement of quality: the price of nonconformance, because that is the language management understands. The quality is measured in terms of the price of non conformance.Let's quickly look at these four absolutes in the next four slides, starting with the first one, which is that the definition of quality is conformance to requirements. So quality means there is a specification; you need that specification; that means you have achieved quality. It's not something that is elegantly good because all these things are not very specific. Conformance to specifications is specific; you can meet it or you don't need it. That's how Philip Cross has defined quality as And another thing is to do it right the first time. So quality means doing it first time right. So what is the role of management here? The role of management is first to clearly specify the requirements of the specification—what needs to be met. If people are aware that this is what is required, then they will be able to achieve it. So that is the role of management: having a clear specification and a clear requirement. Then management needs to provide resources to do that, to achieve that, and then help employees meet those requirements. So these are the three rules of management to make sure that people meet the requirement, people meet the specification limit, and the workers meet the specification limit. So this was the first absolute quality, which is conformance to requirements. Coming to the next one, which is the system of quality, it is prevention, not appraisal. So quality can be achieved by prevention, not by appraisal or testing. Others have suggested that, as Deming stated in his 14 principles, quality should be built into the product or system. Quality is something that cannot really be achieved by inspection. This is the same thing that Deming has also said. So here, as a part of prevention, what you want to do is look at the processes and see where things can go wrong, attend to those opportunities, and make sure that those do not happen. And in this way, you can achieve quality on the first try. So if an error never happened, you really don't need to inspect that. So that's the way to achieve quality: by prevention, not by appraisal. Coming to the third absolute of quality, which is the performance standard, there are zero defects. And this is not a motivational programme that we need to achieve zero defects. Management really needs to work to achieve that. They need to set that standard; they need to provide the resources to the people working so that they can attend to the processes or systems so that they don't produce any defects. In addition, in this absolute, if you see Cross B, it has identified two causes of mistakes. Mistakes can happen in two ways. One is lack of knowledge. So if people don't have knowledge, they don't know how to do the job, and that could create a problem or lack of attention. So if their mind is diverted, that could cause this problem. And for that, let's say you are talking about a lack of knowledge. Then you need to provide knowledge to people, you need to train people, and the second aspect of that is a lack of attention, and for that, there's an attitude problem. So management needs to make sure that people are given solar system," that people are given respect for their work, so that they can do it with love and passion and thus achieve quality. So these are the two ways mistakes can happen: So once again, the third absolute of quality is the performance standard: zero defects. With that, let's move to the fourth and last absolute of quality, which is that the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance. Because measuring quality in terms of repair rate, or any other metric, is likely to make little sense to management. Management understands the language of money. So if you say that this problem costs this much money, it gets attention, and you can get resources to improve that process. So the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance, and somewhere later in this course we will be talking about the cost of quality, which, if you see, would consist of four aspects: prevention, appraisal, and failure. Cost and failure cost would also be split into two parts: internal failure and external failure. So in a way, quality cost is divided into four sections: prevention, appraisal, internal failure, and external failure. So these are the four components of cost for quality. Philip Cross defined that in terms of two main categories, which are the price of conformance and the price of nonconformance. So if you look at the price of conformance, what all do you pay for conformance? So in conventional terms, that will be the appraisal and prevention cost. And if you look at the cost of nonconformance, this will basically consist of internal and external failure. So if something is wrong, what needs to be done to repair it internally or externally? So that is the price of non-conformance, so the cost of quality is split into two broad categories: the price of conformance and the price of non-conformance. So these are the four absolutes of quality proposed by Philip Crosby. So with this, we have completed the lives and works of three quality gurus. We started with Deming. There we learned about 14 principles of management. Then we went to Dr. Joseph Juror. There. We learned about Duran's Trilogy and Ten Steps for Improvement. And in the end, we talk about Philip Crosby. We looked at the life history of Philip Crosby, and we talked about four absolutes of quality.
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