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LPI 010-150 linux Essentials Exam Overview

1. Exam Details

Now let's talk about the exam details. Those who will attend this course will be easily able to pass the exam. The exam contains around 60 questions that are supposed to be answered within 60 minutes. The performance-based and multiple-choice questions are included in the exam because the examiners want to test your skills deeply. Therefore, you should come prepared to answer all the questions in the required time. In order to pass the Linux Ten 150 exam, every candidate must score at least 500 marks out of 800. So how to pass Linux Ten 150 exam? I think it's the most important question that may appear in your mind.

So if you want to pass the exam at the first attempt, besides attending this course, regular practice is the key to making it possible. You must practice your knowledge as much as you can. The mistake that many people make is that they only learn the comments and don't focus on the details. My recommendations are that you should try to understand the different scenarios where these commands are supposed to be used. Thus, you will not get confused while taking the exam. Comments and security and file permissions are the most important topics that one must focus on while preparing for the exam. If you want to score higher marks in the exam, you should create different scenarios on your own and then try to understand them. Thus, you would be able to solve different problems in a quick manner, and you would ultimately score higher marks in the exam. So let's start this course to learn Linux skills—which will definitely help you pass the exam.


Linux Ideas and Concepts

1. Linux Principles

Linux as a Component: The Way to Begin Understanding How the Linux Operating System Works You should understand the components of Linux's operating system. The kernel. The kernel is the core of an operating system, just as the CPU is the core of a computer system. It's a collection of programs, mostly written in C. There is only one kernel for any operating system. The kernel communicates with the hardware directory. Without a kernel, an operating system cannot interact with the hardware. Some of the important tasks of the kernel are to check if the user is an authorized user, keep track of various programmers being run, and allocate specific time to each programmer to assign storage for files on the system to run the shell. programmers to handle the transfer of information between the computer and the terminals.

The second component is the shell. The Linux operating system uses a shell to transfer the commands from the keyboard to the computer. The Shell is just another programmer written in C. It serves as an interpreter between the user programmers and the kernel. It translates user commands into appropriate action. The shell interacts with the user while the kernel interacts with the machine's hardware. So the shell is the programmer that takes commands and either executes the appropriate programmer or translates them into instructions that the kernel understands. For example, a command such as "dear" will be translated by the shell into "kernel." The understandable format for the default shell in Linux is Dash. The third component is the user. Programs and Applications There are a number of tools available on the Linux operating system. Tools are user programmers that may be written by third-party vendors for certain types of applications. Typically, tools are grouped to perform certain functions such as programming, business applications, and word processing such as Office applications, which are similar to Word and Excel. Another example is VI and Nano. Editors bye.

2. Fundamental File Types

Linux File Types One of the things that's important to understand during learning Linux and Unix is the concept of the file system, or how Linux and Unix deal with file systems and files The first thing we should understand is that Linux or Unix is designed, in general, to treat everything as a file, including the hardware devices such as sound cards. Hard disks. CPUs. Serial ports. Video cards all of these things Linux will treatwith them as a file as the Linux runs. Linux opens. Reads. writes and closes the files it needs since Linux treats everything like a file, and there are standard types of files regular or normal file this is generally normal file such as HTML text word executable files Directory is a file type designed specially to hold or point to other file types like file.

We have two types soft or A symbolic link is a file system entry that points to another file system entry, which in turn points to a valid piece of data Symbolic links can work across volume and file systems Symbolic links are similar to shortcuts in Windows. The second type is a hard link, which is a duplicate entry in the file system that points to a specific piece of data. Hard links are not often used if the original entry in the file system is deleted the hard link maintains a valid pointer to the special data In files, we have many types of special files such as character files that accept this input one character at a time. Character files often point to devices like sound cards. Serial ports. Video ports or keyboard block files that accept input in block block files point to storage devices such as hard disks. A pipe file is a file that allows you to send information between applications, so if one application needs to send information to another application, it will use a pipe file. A socket file is similar to a pipe file, but a socket file allows information to be exchanged over the network.

3. Define File Types

In Linux or OnX, everything is a file; even the directory is a special kind of file, but it's still a case In the Fennis file system, each terminal window, for example, "devisor" or any hard disc or any partition, and any process are all represented somewhere in the file system as a file. The file command determines the file type Linux doesn't use extensions to determine the file type The command line doesn't care whether a file ends in tickets or a PDF As a system administrator, you should use the file command to determine the file type, for example, file, space, or password file. It will display that, etc password file is textfile The file command uses a magic file that contains a pattern to recognise file types To learn more about this file, we can run Man 5 Magic, which will display the manual page of this file if we use filespace pro CPU info, which will display that this file is empty because this file pro info is a special file, so we can use file. S followed by the location of the CPU info file will display that this file is the case file, so we can use the "s" option with the file command in the files that are located in the proc directory and we can use the same in the files that are located in the dev directory since I logged in using the MSN user, which is a normal user. I don't have permission to read this deventa file, so if we switch to the root user and run the same command file, So far, we will see more information about devsdefile, but when we ran the file devsda command using mesinuser, it displayed basic information about the devsda file, but now it displays more information about the devsda file because we ran this command as root user.

4. Basics of Linux File System Heirarcy

Linux file system. In order to understand the concept of these file types, let's look at the concept of the file system. Another issue that people have when they first switch to a Linux or Unix operating system is this. In Linux or Unix, we have only one root directory. If we think about when Microsoft decides how many root directories we have, it depends on the number of partitions. So if we have, for example, two partitions C and D, it means we have two root directories. But in Linux or Unix, we have only one root directory, and inside the root directory we have many other directories. In a hierarchy structure, file systems from other hard drive partitions are mounted to directories beneath or under the root directory, providing access to a single directory structure. The file system hierarchy defines the standard control file unified file system for Linux systems by defining a standard set of directories, subdirectories, and files. File system hierarchy standards are a subset of the Linux standard bias, which is an organisation and a set of guidelines for promoting a set of standards to increase Linux distribution compatibility.

Now let's see the file system hierarchy and see what files will exist inside each directory. The root file system is represented by all directories that are below the root directory of the system, such as the directory that contains binary commands that are available to all users. Slash boot directory contains the kernel and bootloader files. The dev directory contains device files. ATC's directory contains configuration files specific to the operating system. Slash home directory contains, by default, the user's home directories. The depth directory contains shared programmer libraries and kernel modules for 32 pet systems. Media directory contains the CDROM directory and it’s the point where CD Rom drive can be mounted according to file system hierarchy standard. The MNT directory is an empty directory and was the mount point for CD-ROM drives. The OP directory contains the additional programs. pros directory contains information about the system state and processes root directory is the root user's loan directory. Don't confuse between root with the root of the file system which is represented by forward. Slashsben's directory contains system binary commands. The SRV directory contains files for services like the FTP and web servers. Sysdirectory contains some of the system state that was previously contained in ProcDirectory. Slash temp directory contains temporary files created by programmes during system use. The USR directory contains system commands and utilities. Our directory contains data files that change consistently, such as log files and mailboxes lab.64 directory contains shared programme libraries and kernel modules for 64-bit systems.

5. Linux FS in depth

As we mentioned before, all Linux systems have a directory structure that starts at the root directory, and the root directory is represented by a forward slash. So everything that existed on your Linux operating system can be found below this root directory. So, if we run LSL or the root directory, we will see the root directory's contents. Let us now go over the contents of each directory in detail. So let's clear the screen using clear commands and bend directory, and we will see the binaries for use by all users. The bin directory should contain bincat and bin date, according to the file system hierarchical standard. and among other binaries The scbin directory contains the binaries to configure the operating system. Many of the system binaries requireruit privilege to perform certain tasks. The binaries found in SBINuse shared libraries that are located in the live directory are typically found in the live directory. So for the live modules directory here, we can see that the Linux kernel loads kernel modules from this directory based on the kernel version lab 64; it contains the library files for 64-bit systems. An opt directory is used to store optional software. In many cases, this software is from outside the distribution repository. You may find an empty opt directory on many Linux systems. All files required to install the operating system are located in the boot directory. We can see where you put the grab directory from here. If we list the content of this directory using LS boot grub, we will see that here is the splash file, which contains the boot picture.

And if we list boot grab two, we will see the configuration files for the boot loader, which is used during booting the operating system. And in the grab configuration file, we can see the boot menu that is displayed before the kernel starts. In etc. directory we can see all of the machine specific. Configuration files should be located in ATC's directory. Many times the name of the configuration files is the same as the application, the daemon, or the protocol, with.conf added as an extension, such as updatedconfiguration file. Another of Linux's distributions has a TCP/IP init z-directory that contains scripts to start and stop daemons during system startup. ATC/X11 contains the configuration files for your graphical user interface. The At scale directory contains the heading files that were copied to the home directory of a newly created user, such as logout, profile, and RC, and finally Mozilla directory The ipconfig directory contains a lot of configuration files, such as the configuration file for NFS service and the firewall, the configuration file for NIT, and many other configuration files.

We have here our syslog configuration file, which is the configuration file of the syslog service, which is responsible for system logging. In home directory we can see the home directories for the local users such as Mustafa, myosin and Yassin users and the home directory name is similar to the user name. On many systems, the root directory is the default location for personal data and the profile for the root user. SrvDirectory stores data files for specific services such as www and FTP. Media directories are considered to be worth points for removable media devices such as CDs and DVDs, digital cameras, and various USB-attached attached devicesirectory.It should be empty and only be used for temporary mount points according to file system hierarchicalstandard the slash "temp" directory; it contains the temporary data of the applications and users when needed. Never use SlashTemp to store data that is important or that you wish to archive. Dev directory, which contains the device files but is not actually located on the hard disk.

So it means dev directory isconsidered as in memory directory. The "dev" directory is populated with files as the kernel is recognizing hardware. If we list the LSL directory, we will see the content of the devdirectory in long list format. Here we can see the first character. Here is what defines the file type. Here the file type is character device file, and for all characters we will see that the CD room directory is considered to be symbolic length to the SR zero directory. So here l is a reference for symbolic length, and here we can see a b character for blog device files such as FD zero, and we can see here the b character again, which defines the blog device file for our hard disk, and for the partitions SDA one, SDA two, and SDA three, pts directories represent a terminal or console attached to the system. A dev null file is considered a special device file, which can be considered a black hole. It has unlimited storage, but nothing can be retrieved from it. Technically speaking, anything written to DEVNULL will be discarded. So we can use DevNalFile to discard unwanted output from the commands. The PROC directory is considered to be in the memory directory. It means it's not stored on the local hard disk, and it contains information about the running processes and about the operating system. When we use the free and top commands, as well as the PS command, the output of these comments comes from this directory, and the numeric directories are considered process directories, containing information about the currently running process. And here we can see information about the hardware. For example, if we get the pfsense file, we can see information about the CPU that is attached to our server. So it's highly recommended to not deal with this file directory. That's why we are using some tools, such as free top PS commands SetDirectory contains some information about the hardware attached to the server and the kernel. The USR directory contains shareable and read-only data. If we list them, we will see a lot of commands that can be used by users.

If we list the contents of the user includes directory, we can see files that are written in C, which is used by the operating system. If we list the USR lab directory, we will see the libraries that are not directly executed by users. or scripts in USR, a local directory can be used by the administrator to install software locally. If we list the content of the USR share directory, we can see independent data, including the manual pages of the operating system. So if we leave the content of man, we will see the manual pages of the operating system. The USR SRC directory is the recommended location for kernel source files. In the VAR directory, we can see the logs and the cache and the spool files. So, if we list verlogdirectory, we can think of log directory as a centralized location for all log files. For example, the varlogmessages file is a typical first file to check when troubleshooting the operating system. A cache directory can contain cache data for multiple applications, such as the YAM application. VAR spool directory typically contains spool directories for mail and chrome. This is the spool for mailboxes, and this is the spool for Chrome jobs, and this is for Anacreon jobs. In varlet directory, it contains application state information. For example, if we list varlebrpm, it will display the database for the rpm command. Also in the slash run directory, we can see the process ID files for the running processes.

6. Linux Bash Shell

Linux shellfacts. The shell is the interface between the user and the operating system. Using the shell, users and programmes send commands to the kernel. In many ways, the shell is much like the DOS Commander printer. You can also open a terminal session or a comment prompt and be prompted to type comments and receive responses, just like adults in Windows. Although most Linux distributions now include a graphical interface and many administration tools have been converted to a graphical format, as an administrator, you will find some task-based performance in the commands prompted. In addition, while graphical elements vary between Linux distributions, shell commands are most likely to be consistent between Linux distributions.So if you learn shell commands in one distribution, like Santos, for example, you will be able to manage any Linux distribution.

The default shell in most Linux distributions is called Bash, which stands for Born Again Shell, because it has many advantages. As we will learn during the course, when we use the Linux command shell, we will see the command prompt indicate that the system is ready to accept commands. In this command-prompt example, user will define the login username at host well define the server's hostname, buyer defines the user's location, and the dollar sign usually indicates that we logged in as a regular user. If the dollar sign is replaced by a hash, it means that we logged in as root users. Linux comments have the following format options for comment space or a variety of options space argument or many arguments, the order and separation of the elements of a command are very important. The command name must come first. Spaces are used by the shell as a separator on the command line and should not be placed within the command name. The options should follow the command name, separated by a space and preceded by a dash or minus sign. Options are typically used to modify the operation or the behaviour of the command. The argument, also called a command line argument, is a filename or other data that is provided to a comment in order for the command to use it as an input. The arguments follow the options, again separated by a space. The order of the arguments will depend on the command. Now let's see examples for some commands in our lab I installed Sent us Seven to use it during the course. So to open the Bash or the terminal, we will right click on the desktop and select Open Terminal.

This is the interface of the Bash, which will be used during the course. And as we mentioned before, the shell is the programme that allows the user to interact with the operating system. The comment prompt has now appeared, defining the username as MEEC at local host. Local host is the host name of our server, and here is a Telda sign, which defines the home directory of the logged-in user. And here is the dollar sign, which defines that we are logged in as a normal user, but if we log in as root, the dollar sign will be replaced by ash. So to execute a comment, we will type the command name, such as LS, and press Enter. LS will display the content of the current directory. To change the behaviour of the output of this command, let's execute the command using one option. So we will execute LS followed by a space or hyphen l.This option will display the contents of the current directory in a long list, and it gives some information about the contents of the directory. To list the contents of another directory, we will execute lespace l ATC. For example, we will see the content in another format. We've now used LS as an LSoption and ATC as an Arbum



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