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This course is based on the American Society for Quality Certified Six Sigma Green Belt body of knowledge. So if you go to Asq.org and look for the Green Belt, you will see that there is a body of knowledge that ASQ expects you to understand. And here is the copy, which I have printed. So this is the ASU Green Belt body of knowledge. This course is aligned with this body of knowledge. This body of knowledge consists of six main sections. Section one is the overview of Six Sigma, and the next five sections are DMAC defined, which is section two. Then measure, analyze, improve, and control So let's start with the overview of Six Sigma, which is section one of the body of knowledge. In the overview, ASQ requires you to understand three broad things: One is Six Sigma and the organisational goals. So how does Six Sigma fit with the organisational goal? To say it the other way around, whatever Six Sigma project you choose needs to be aligned with the organisational goal. And this is what we will be learning in Section One A. One B will be on lean principles in the organization. So we will have a quick overview of lean processes, and then in one chapter we will talk about design for Six Sigma methodologies. We are not going into the details of "Design for Six Sigma," but we just need to have a high-level overview of DFSS or "Design for Six Sigma." So this is Section One. So now coming to section one, which is Six Sigma and organisational goals, So there will be three major topics covered in this lesson. What is the value of Six Sigma? Why do people or organisations go for Six Sigma? The second main topic here will be organisational goals and Six Sigma projects. So how do they need to be aligned? Then we will talk about organisational drivers. What drives an organization? What are the key factors in running an organization? So that's the purpose of one of So let's start with the value of Six Sigma in the next video, which will tell them why we need to go for Six Sigma.
2. What is a Certified Blockchain Solutions Architect (CBSA)?
We have a list of benefits that you can get from Six Sigma projects. The first thing is that SixSigma generates sustained success. And when I say sustained success, what does this mean? It means success time after time. So in Six Sigma, as you have learned earlier, in Yellow Bell, we have a project-based approach. So we take a project, an improvement project, and we work on that and improve our processes. Once we complete that project, that project leads to some sort of success in terms of the organisational goal. Let's say the goal was to improve profits. This particular project will help us improve profits. This project is no longer profitable and will be discontinued. What this project, or the improvement project, does is give you savings year after year, month after month. So what does that mean? It means that once you complete that project, the results of it come repeatedly, time after time. So this is what it means: Six Sigma projects generate sustained success. The second benefit of Six Sigma is that when we do projects or improvement projects in Six Sigma, these projects are tied to organisational strategy. What the organisation wants to do, whether it wants to improve customer satisfaction or have a larger number of people, similar to Facebook, where the emphasis is initially on getting more people enrolled in the site, or this could be a social benefit if the organisation is looking for that. So whatever the purpose of this organisation is, these projects are tied to that organisational strategy. Another significant advantage of the Six Sigma approach is that the project outcomes, or results, or benefits, are linked to the financial reporting system. Let's be clear here. Whatever project we do, at the end of the day, in most organisations, what you will be looking for is financial success. Even if you are a social organisation that benefits people, you still need to make more money to help other people. And if you are a commercial organization, you definitely need to improve your profits to show them to your stakeholders or shareholders. So any project which you do in SixSigma is tied to the financial results. In Six Sigma, you have full-time blackbelts who work on specific projects. And along with these full-time black belts, you have green belts, which are part-time. So green belts do have their own job. And in addition to that, they get involved in these improvement projects. And in Six Sigma, there is an established reward system to provide motivation. So once you complete a project, once you gain something—profits or improvements—there is a reward system attached to that improvement. So these are some key benefits of Six Sigma. If you're wondering what other organisations have accomplished, here's a list of some of the organisations that have achieved success through the implementation of Six Sigma. The first one, or the obvious one, that comes to mind is Motorola. Motorola is the one who initiated, launched, or invented the Six Sigma concept. So in the case of Motorola, the growth in the sale was five foldgrowth.And these are old numbers, so these are not the latest numbers, but when they implemented Six Sigma, their sales went five times up, and their profits climbed by 20% per annum, which is a big number. And then they saved 14 billions over a period of eleven years because of Six Sigma projects. So that's something that Motorola has achieved. The next name that comes to mind when we talk about Six Sigma is GE or General Electric. They also implemented Six Sigma in a big way. So what they achieved was in just threeyears, they achieved $2 billion in saving. Bactel is another name that saved 200 million with an investment of 30 million. And when I say investment of $30 million, yes, when you do improvement projects, you have to invest some money, invest in training, invest in the time people spend doing these Six Sigma projects, and even spend some money changing machines, changing processes, and changing setups. So that's something that is the cost of Six Sigma. So Vector spent 30 million, and then they saved 200 million as a result of Six Sigma projects. So these are some of the benefits of Six Sigma.
3. CBSA Exam Questions
which is also known as CTQ, or critical to quality. The second one is reducing defects. Defects are quantified using DPMO defects per million opportunities and six sigma. We're looking at 3.4 defects per million opportunities that are centred on the target, mean, and reduce variation. Variation is measured in terms of the standard deviation, which is also called sigma. So these are the four key philosophies when it comes to Six Sigma. Let's take a simple example. Here we are producing a shop or apiece of item which is 100 mm long. So let's draw that. So this is something which I want toproduce here I'm taking an example of shaftbecause this is easy to understand. But then this could be anything. This could be your cue to complete the surveys. This could be patient infectionrate in case of hospital. It could be the time it takes for any financial transaction. So whatever field you are working in, these examples might be different. But to keep things simple because many of you are coming from different fields I'm just taking the simple example that I'm producing a shaft, a piece, or a rod of 100. What I want to have is a 100 mm shaft. But we know very well that you cannot have an item without variation. There's variation everywhere. So if you want to create a 100 millimetre sharp and you start measuring, sometimes you might find a sharp that is, let's say, 1011. The time you discover it is 98 mm. Another time you make another one, you will find this at 103. So there is a variation. But now, with the Six Sigma philosophy, the first thing we want to know is whether this is important to customers or not. Whether this length is important to the customer or not This is point number one. Let's assume that this length is very important to the customer. This piece fits in a slot that is 100 mm wide. Let's say this piece fits in something like this. So having this 100 millimeter X is important. Okay? There might be some variation. So let's say we have some tolerance on top of that. But this dimension is important. So this addresses the first point, that this is critical to customers or important to customers. The second thing is reduced defects, and defects are anything that doesn't fit into this slot and will be a defective item. So what we want to do is reduce the number of defects in this particular shaft, which we are producing. Now, when we say center around the target, our target is 100 mm. That's what we want to produce. So, if we produce a certain number of these items, the first item should be 10; The second item is 98. On average, we should have 100 mm of rain. Later on, you will see a normal distribution curve as well. So here what we are targeting is this as a100 mm that on the average we should have these shafts produced having length of 100 mm on average. The second thing that we want is reduced variation. With less variation, we can have a distribution like this, with these shafts produced somewhere between 95 and 105. Most of the shafts are 100 mm; some are 95 or 105 mm as well. So this is one process. On the other hand, if we could improve this process where we have 100 mm on average and a very tight variation, and in this case we produce the majority of our shafts between 99 and 101 mm, So this is how we reduce variation and the standard deviation. So we should be looking for this where our center is 100 mm, the average is 100 mm, the standard division of the variation is less, and this is important to the customer. and that way we reduce the number of defects or returns. Because if we send a much bigger shaft to the customer, this doesn't fit, and that will get rejected.
4. Exam Tested Objectives
I'm not going into that part of the history of Six Sigma. What I want to emphasise in this topic is that when we say Six Sigma evolved in 1986, it was not because something magical happened and all these concepts evolved at the same time. All these concepts, which you will see in the Six Sigma course, have been evolving much earlier. For example, one of the key concepts in Six Sigma is control charts. because the Six Sigma approach is based on control charts. Control charts were looking at plus-minus three ThreeSigma.Six-sigma becomes plus-minus minus six sigma.So, the fundamental concept in the foundation of Six Sigma is control charts. Those control charts were developed by Walter Schuhart in 1920, months before the concept of Six Sigma evolved. Other things which form the part of SixSigma concept is the project based improvement. That was the philosophy proposed by Jurorn. Damning philosophies of process control variation and PDCA got into Six Sigma. So the PDCA concept was translated into a DMAC approach. So basically that also isa cyclic approach of improvement. She developed a fishbone diagram that was used for root cause analysis. That also forms an important part of six-sigma concepts. And we use this tool in the analysis phase to analyse the problem. Earlier, we had concepts related to the process capability CP, CPK), and those got translated into defects per million opportunities. CPK will tell us how capable the process is. Whereas in Six Sigma, the metric is DPMO or DFX per million opportunities. So these are also, basically, somehow connected to each other. Another important concept in the control phase of the DMAC process is the design of experiments. Design of experiments was developed by Rafisher, just like control charts. Design of experiments is also a much older concept. So what you would see here is that all these concepts that we use in Six Sigma, many of which have been developed long ago, And a combination of all these things—a combination of control charts, Juron's philosophy of project-by-project improvement, Demi's philosophy of variation Ishikawa, and many other philosophies—got combined and packaged into a concept called Six Sigma. So, if you think that Six Sigma is a new concept, it's not. It's based on all these old concepts, but it's nicely packaged so that you can implement it. So with this, we complete the first topic in the body of knowledge, which is value in Six Sigma. Now, the next topic will be organisational goals and Six Sigma projects. Let's look at that in the next video.
5. Blockchain is it really all or nothing?
That was about the value of Six Sigma. Now, coming to this topic, which is organisational goals and Six Sigma projects, one thing we should understand very clearly is that whatever Six Sigma project we do needs to be aligned with the organisational goals. Every organisation has its own goals. Let's say many of the organisations have the goal of profit maximization. Some organisations have the goal of having more customers. For example, when Facebook, Twitter, and these other companies started, they were not looking for profits. They were looking for more numberof people subscribing to their platform. There could be some other organisation that is doing some social work. So their goal could be something different, seeing that the benefits are being transferred to people who need that. So every organisation will have their own goals. What Six Sigma project needs to do is theseprojects need to be aligned with those goals. So there's no point in doing a Six Sigma project or improvement project that is not aligned with the organisational goal. So that is one thing about which we will be talking in this section, which is selecting Six Sigma projects. How do we select a project? So briefly, we will understand that, and we will talk about aligning those projects with the goal of the organization. Second component which we willtalk here is the process. When we do improvement, we dothe improvement on a process. So for process improvement, we need to understand what the process is. We have input, we have processes, and we have output, and there is a feedback mechanism. We will talk briefly about that and wewill understand how this connects with Six Sigma. So let's start with selecting the SixSigma project in this video. So, when choosing projects, whatever industry or organisation you work in, just sit back and consider what could be improved, and start making lists. And I'm very sure that once you start making this list, this list is going to be huge. So there are a number of things that you can improve in your organization. That's a long list. But then how do we make that list? So, just to brainstorm, there are various sources for Six Sigma project selection. One is from external sources. In external sources, we talk about the voice of customers, the voice of the market, and the voice of competitors. Here we are listening to things that are outside the organization. And that helps us identify improvement projects. Let's talk about voice ofcustomer from voice of customer. What you really want to know is what customer complaints are. Where are the rejections? Why customers are leaving us? Those are the things that can give you the voice of the customer. Then, in addition to that, you might want to know: what are the new needs of customers? Because customers' needs are also changing. So the other source is the voice of the market. Look at what market trends are, what other organisations are doing, and how other organisations are getting customers. So look at that. That will give you an idea of where you as an organisation can improve. The voice of competitors comes next. See what your competitors are doing and what they are doing better than you. Look at that. And improving those sorts of things can help your organisation grow. So these are some of the external sources, but then there are some internal sources as well. So let's look at that list as well. So here we have some of the internal sources of Six Sigma projects. The first one is the voice of the process. So whatever process you're using tells you what needs to be improved. Where are the defects, repairs, and reverb? That is the voice of the process. If a particular machine or process produces more defects, this indicates that, yes, something needs to be done on this particular process or machine. Where are the major delays? Where is the major waste? Look at that. And that will give you a good ideaabout the projects which you can do. Voice of Employees employees are the peoplewho are actually working on that process. They know the process much better. So if you are a manager or an area supervisor of a number of people, talk to those people who are working on the process. They will give you good ideas for where things could be improved. So these are internal sources. Now, based on these internal and external sources, you will probably make a big list of items where you can improve. Some machines are producing more defects. Some competitors are doing much better than you. You can make a list of everything and see where you can improve. That's the first step in doing a Six Sigma project. But then, that is a big list. So that list needs to be filtered out so that you are left with some selective projects, and how do we do that? So, once you've compiled this lengthy list of items, you must recognise that some projects are basic or ground fruits. And ground fruits are somethingwhich you can quickly do. If some machine needs adjustment so that its defect rate will decrease, then make that adjustment. This is ground fruit, which you can eat straight away. Then there are low-hanging fruits, which require a very little amount of analysis and a very little amount of work, and that will help you improve processes. So those are called "low hanging fruits." You can use seven basic quality tools to understand where the problems are and then attempt that for low-hanging fruits that are not very complex and are within the scope of one or two people. So those are low-hanging fruits. Then once you have crossed that, there are some projects that will fall under the bulky fruits, or, let's say, the sweet fruits. These are something where youneed more analysis, more work. This might require investment, thismight require interdiscipline coordination. So that is what you could call the majority of fruits. Or, if there are some things that are extremely important and can make a significant difference, they are referred to as sweet fruits. However, in terms of the green belt, you will most likely be limited to low-hanging fruits that can be harvested with simple tools or, to a lesser extent, the majority of fruits that require some process optimization. But if you are a master black belt, then you can look for those fruits or those projects that can drastically change the organization. So this is how you can broadly classify your projects. And now going back to the same topic, where we listed down, let's say, 2050 projects that you can do based on external factors and internal factors Now, how do we filter those lists, and where do we start from there? That's where these three criteria come into the picture. So there are three basic qualifications for a Six Sigma project. Number one is, Is there a gap between current and desired or needed performance? That is the first thing that you need to do to improve the process. You need to know what you have now, what you actually desire, and what the needed performance was. If there is a big gap in that, or ifthere's a gap in that, then only you need todo a Six Sigma or any improvement project. The second factor which you need to look intothat is the cause of problem not clearly understood. Because if you know the cause of the problem, you can just do it earlier. Also, I was talking about an example where, let's say, a machine needs adjustment, and once you make that adjustment, that defect rate will go down. Just do it. You don't need a Six Sigma project for that. Don't go for Six Sigma projects or the DMAC approach because you know the cause of the problem very clearly. The third factor is solution is notpredetermined, nor is the optimal solution apparent. So if there is no predetermined solution, and going back to the same example, the predetermined solution was to make adjustments to that machine if the solution is not very apparent. Many times the solution might be apparent, but that might not be the optimal solution. So when I say, okay, you do the adjustmentin the machine, the defect rate will go down,that adjustment might not be the optimal l solution. So wBy doing that adjustment, your defect rate might go from 10% to 5%, but that's not the optimal solution. You might want to reduce from 10%to, let's say, zero 1% defective. In that case, you need a Six Sigma project. So look at these three criteria and see which of the big lists that you have made qualifies for a Six Sigma project. And once again, even after all these things, your Six Sigma project needs to be aligned with the organisational goal. Because if it is aligned with the organisational goal, you will get management support, you will get resources, and you will get those things implemented.
6. Course Content Download Here
Series of steps to produce a product or a service. Now, whatever I'm doing, let’s say I'm recording this lecture. That’s a process. In my organization of delivering online courses, there are number of processes, processes. The first process probably would be making slides, doing some research on the topic, that what all topics to be produced. So making slides and research in the first process. The second process would be to record these lectures. So the third process would be to edit these lectures, add an introduction and closing, add some subtitles so that's the editing part. And then the last fourth step would be to sell these courses. So let's say broadly in this organization there are four broad processes. So if I need to improve the organization, I need to improve each of these processes or all the processes which are critical to the success of my operation. Any process has input and output. So let's say this process which is recording this lecture, what am doing right now in this process, the input is the slides or the research which I have done. The research will be again based on number of inputs which will include books which you can see on the back and the knowledge available, the body of knowledge which is required. So all those things are input to this particular process of recording a lecture. And the output of this process will be an MP4 file which comes out. So this is what a process islands then in any process there Isa feedback from output to input. So let's say if I do all this process and make file which is MP4 file, and then I see that, oh, there is a problem with the sound because the sounds not clear in the final deliverable, then I need Togo back and look at the inputs. That one of my inputs was this recording mic,whether the mic was performing right or not. So this was a very simple example. And in any organization you will have a number of processes and there will be input to that process. Output will be the result of the process. And then there is a feedback mechanism. And then many times you will see that noise factors also coming and affecting the process. In Six Sigma world you will see an equation which is called say is equal to FX, y is the function of x here is output. So output is the function of inputs. If you want to improve your output, you need to look, adjust and change your inputs. So your inputs affect the output. So you cannot have a better output without making any changes to the input. And that's what the whole philosophy as you go further, you would see that that's the whole philosophy of Six Sigma, that to improve the process output you need to make some adjustments, some changes to the input. So this is something which you just might want to keep in your mind as you go through this course, that if you want to improve the process output, you need to make adjustments to input. So after learning about just basic fundamentals about process, now let's look at Six Sigma projects. That these Six Sigma projects or improvement projects, what you are doing need to be aligned with the organization’s vision, mission and the broader strategy. So these projects need to be aligned with what your organization wants to do. If you are in an organization which is profit oriented than most of the cases, profit is the priority. So anything which you can do to improve profits and what you can do to improve profits, you can improve the productivity, you can reduce the defect level, you can reduce cost, you can make things faster. Whatever you could do will lead to increase in profits. Some organizations, instead of working on profits, might be focused on getting a bigger market share. Someorganizations will be focused on customer acquisition, more customers they need rather than profit. In case of medical, you might have the goal of theorganization to have patient safety as a key driver. Someorganizations might have client satisfaction as their key goal. So before you think about proceeding with a SixHiggs project, you need to understand what your organization'sgoals are, where your organisation is moving, and basedon that, you need to select your project.So with this, we conclude organizationalgoal and Six Sigma projects.The next thing which we will do is wewill talk about organisational drivers and matrix, what drivesan organization, which is something similar to what weare talking here, that Six Sigma projects need tobe aligned with the organisational goal or strategy.Let's move on to the next section and learn about that.
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