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Understanding Network Infrastructures
6. Local Area Networks - part 2
local area networks. VLANs. That is our main topic in this lecture. We are going to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of wired and wireless connections. Let's start with VLANs. I decided to quote Cisco because it is a really nice definition of a VLAN. Again, for now, it is like an introduction. Okay? We need that when we get to more advanced topics. Hardware switches, routers' routing, and so on. We will need all these things for now. I want to introduce villains—virtual local area networks. What is a villain? I like to give my own example because you can read the definition on your screen. I want to give you an example because I think that's the easiest way to understand that. Imagine that you have a switch. You have four ports on that switch. Port number one, you have a really important server, okay? That is your server. It is for your HR department. It means that they store sensitive information about employees—salaries, things like that. a place that you need in a company. Then you have a PC, and this is an HR specialist. Okay? So someone who works in an HR department The last two ports are just my two favourite names. It's Mike and John. They just worked at this company. They have nothing to do with HR. Let's say they are engineers, okay? It is its own company. Let's say it is like that. I have a question for you. Do you believe Mike and John should have access to that server, and you all say, "Of course not" It's not allowed. What you can do You can, of course, create some rules and ask Mike, "Okay, can you give me a username and password?" Can you give me? I don't know a code to access. However, it's not a good idea to give her a chance to do that, if you know what I mean. It's like trying to break into a house. if you don't allow anyone to get even close to your house. It's even better. Yeah, it's even better to do that rather than investing in the best door possible, because there is a chance that someone manages to find a way in. The same applies to our situation. So what can we do? We can say that these two guys will be in Villain Seven. It's just a number. And then we say, Let me change the color. Let's say that Mike and John will be in Villains 27. The idea is that villains without a router can't talk to each other. If you set up your switch like that, Mike and John will not even get a chance to see the HR server. I hope it makes sense. We'll talk a little more about that in more detail when we get to switches and hardware. For now, I wanted to tell you that story and show you an example like that to make it easier when I get to switches and hardware. The last section here that I want to cover is dedicated to wired and wireless connections. As an MTA-certified engineer, you have to have a very good idea about wireless, wired, and all connections—everything that is related to these topics. A question for you: What is the main advantage of a wired connection? What is the main advantage of wireless connections? Our next lecture is dedicated to wireless. We talk about wireless standards. I'm pretty sure you know about wireless. There is a big chance—I can say 80% or even more—that you're using wireless at the moment to watch my training. What is the main advantage of wired versus wireless? Let's start with wireless as the primary benefit. For me, the most important thing about that is the freedom. Okay? I can be in my living room, bathroom, kitchen, or, well, basement. It all depends. That is the problem with the mainproblem with wireless is the range. Still, it is awesome. Please keep in mind that we have a router, albeit a wireless router. or to be more specific, a router with a built-in access point. That is really cool. When you think about wireless, you think of putting an Aruta in your living room. You don't need any cameras. You just go to your bedroom and you can browse the Internet. You can watch a movie or play an online game. Awesome. Let's think about a wired connection. Now, what is the main advantage? And you all go. If you've never worked in it, you're in for a treat. Wireless is fantastic, mate. We don't need wires. And it is not true. To be more specific, even if you get to a brand new office, you get a new office. You will see wires everywhere. Why is that? If wireless is so good and it's really cheap to deploy, just think about a big office. You have an office with 25 desks. It will cost a lot of money. You have to pay a lot to have structured cabling in it. You can just buy one access point for £500, a really decent business-class access point, and you're done. I can make it happen in, like, 3 hours. and you will spend weeks doing cabling. Still, all companies do that. You will see people invest thousands of pounds a day—even more than that in a that in abecause wireless is not reliable. It's great if you want to browse the Internet; if you want to go to Facebook or watch a clip on YouTube, it's awesome. However, it's not reliable. If you want to work every day with a SQL database, if you want to access a Java website, if you want to, I don't know, whatever, access a file or a spreadsheet on a server, you will not use wireless. We like to use a wired connection. That's what you have to memorise from this slide. In this lecture, we talked about VLANs and wired and wireless solutions. As I mentioned, our next session is going to be dedicated to white area networks and wireless. We will talk about white area networks first and then wireless. Thank you very much.
7. Overview of Wide Area Networks
MTA networking Fundamentals Wide Area Networks Do you remember our previous lesson? We started with a question. I asked you to identify a network device. Let's try it again. What is that? I hope you manage to recognise it as a router. To be more specific, it is a wireless router. To be more specific, it means that a router has a bit in access point. It means that a wireless client can connect to your network as well. However, our main focus is going to be on the router here. Why? Because we are going to talk about wide-area networks. A white area network allows you to connect more than one local area network—at least two or even more local area networks. I found a really nice network diagram that will help you understand that. And this is a network diagram that you can find in the real world. It's really important. You're going to be MTA certified. At the end of this training, you will have a very good idea about networking hardware, services, protocols, and troubleshooting. That's why it's very important that you know how to identify a network device and even create a network diagram. Let's take a quick look. We've got two local area networks. local area network one and local area network two. Now we've got two routers: router one and router two. These devices are switches: switch one, switch two, switch three, and switch four. On everything else on the network, there are end devices: phones, computers, printers, service scanners, whatever. It doesn't really matter. end device users, they browse the Internet. They access shares and emails every day, and in most cases they play online games and go to Facebook. Here we have a wide-area nd go to Facbecause we are going to connect more than one local area network. This one is connected to that one. It means that we have just created our first white area network. Yeah, our first one is a white area network. The most important device is the Aruta. Aruta allows you to create a wipe area network, manage it, decide what to do with it, what is allowed, and how to route your traffic. That's the keyword. Please memorise it for now. We're going to talk about routers later on and what they do. For now, please make sure that you memorise that. They can route packets to be more specific—root messages for now, to keep it simple. Routers are very important in our networks, of course. What's missing here? a link to the Internet. Maybe this router is connected to the cloud, and this guy is connected to the cloud. Now, a question that you can come up with Okay? What is that guy? What is that? It all depends. We can have many different white area network connections. We talked about one of them; do you remember? a secure connection; a secure tunnel? Yes, VPNs. We can use dial-up, frame relay, or ADSL. We'll talk about solutions like that later on. For now, it is just a way for you to go from one router to another. In most cases, we use an ISP or ISPs, or Internet service or you to go fThey can provide a link like that. You go to your local ISP. In most cases, it's your phone provider as well. And you ask them, "Okay, listen guys, I have an office in Chicago, London, Paris, whatever, and I need a link to the office over there." Can you make it happen, please? and they can come up with a solution. They can look at their infrastructure. Of course, if you want to create a VPN connection, then you don't have to ask anyone. You can create a tunnel over here as long as you have an Internet connection. Okay? That is the great thing about VPNs: You don't need anyone. All you have to do is arrange access to the Internet. That's all you need. Everything else can be done by routers. You create a VPN panel on a router. That's it. You don't need your ISP. And of course, what's even more important is that you don't have to pay your ISP. wide area network connections Solutions like that can be pretty expensive, especially if we talk about lease lines. They're really expensive here. You simply purchase a router, select the abroadband package, and configure your VPN connection. In this lecture, we talked about wide area networks. In our next lecture, we'll talk about wireless. Yes, it is a very important topic. I want to spend a lot of time talking about wireless, because wireless is everywhere. In the next lecture, we'll talk about wireless standards and things that make it harder or more possible for you, for instance, to use an Internet connection on your mobile phone. I encourage you to watch my video dedicated to access points where we talk about hardware. A bonus video follows in which I walk through the installation and configuration steps for a business class access point. Thank you very much.
8. Let's talk about Wireless and wireless security
Wireless networking. Do you remember your first wireless device? I do remember, yes. Again, it makes me feel really old when I say that. Yes, do remember. It was really great today. It's pretty obvious when we talk about a wireless connection. That's what we're going to cover in this lecture. Wireless standards. As you can imagine, behind almost everything there is a standard, and the same applies to wireless. We need a standard. We need something that we can use to identify our wireless solutions. and that's what is available today. I found a really nice table for you. We'll go check out a real access point. You will see that on an ASUS access point in a moment. Here, I want to show you some wireless standards. The latest one is 800 and 211 AC. That's the latest one. It is really fast. And that is the last one in the table here, in theory. and it can go even above three gigabits per second. That's really awesome. Of course, that's in theory. In the real world, you will get like 20% of that speed. Still, it is really impressive. When we think about wireless and wireless standards, I remember it changing when we moved to this guy, 8211 N. That is just a name. All standards are simply given names and numbers. And I remember when it was introduced in 2009, it changed the world, because when you look at the speeds and things that can be achieved, especially the distance, everything was improved at the time, and it was really great. Of course, people were very happy to buy it because of the HD videos and everything else available on the internet. When you have streaming videos, everything is online. Cloud-based solutions are everywhere. That's why people need a fast wireless connection as well. because you want to watch a movie on your mobile device. Tablets changed everything as well, because you wanted to watch something on a tablet.And in most cases, ABG, they were too slow. Even though you can see like 54 megabits per second, for instance, in G or A, that's not what you will find in the real world. For instance, this guy and that guy In the real world, all you can get is around megabytes per second, okay? Megabytes per second, because it's in megabits I'm not sure if you know how to calculate that. So let's say it is 54 megabytes per second, okay? And there are megabytes per second, megabytes, and megabits, okay? And you have to divide it by eight to figure it out in megabytes. So here it is in megabytes. And that's why, for instance, if you copy a file in Windows, it's in megabytes. So it was around the maximum of three megabytes, okay? That gives you 24 megabytes per second. That was the maximum you could get for ABG and three megabytes per second. That is, of course, the maximum. It means that you will not get anything like course, tLet's say that's three. It means it will go like that, then it will drop. That's the problem with wireless. And it might be too slow for some HD Blu-ray movies—things like that. That's why people were very happy to move to 11 N and AC. Well, I am not very happy to upgrade anything in my network because, to be honest, 800 and 211 N are absolutely fine with me. I can get around eight megabytes per second. Two things that I wanted to cover here are WiFi interference and SSID. I'm pretty sure you know the first one. That's the main disadvantage of wireless. It's not reliable. Okay? And one of the problems is interference. It can happen because of other devices running on the same frequency. There can be something in your walls—a lot of things—and it's very difficult to troubleshoot. The easiest thing I can give you is a tip: try and move your router or access point. Sometimes that will do the trick. Move it, sometimes even just from your table. Just move it to, I don't know, next to your chair or whatever. Sometimes, you can be surprised. It can even double the speed. Now, a SSID is a name that identifies a network. If you want to connect to a network, that's the name. Of course, we will try and see that on a real access point because it makes more sense. Let's check. First of all, we can see the frequency. There are two main frequencies that we can use. 2.4 and five are better. We have more channels. However, a lot of devices do not support that frequency. Here is our name because it's an Asus router. The default name was Asus. Of course, you can customise and change it. Hide SSID. Sometimes they call it "do not broadcast." SSID, it means that you will not be able to see the name of your network on the list in Windows. Some people consider that a great security solution. If not, it's pretty easy to figure it out. And for your end users, it's a nightmare because they cannot see that network on the list, and they will be upset because they have no idea how to set it up. They can't click on it. They have to enter everything. They hate it. Don't really do that. Wireless mode. We'll just leave it. There are two options for channel bandwidth. by 2040, and it's even 80. If we go back in time, that is 80 or even 160 degrees Celsius in AC. Of course, this router is okay with 20 and 40 channels. It means that "auto" means that this router will decide the channel to go for. Or you can assign a channel yourself 0 and 40 channels. IWe're going to talk about security in a moment. Let's do the channel Many, many years ago, when wireless was introduced, people were so amazed by it that they didn't really think about security. After a while they realised and said, "Oh, okay, what do you mean?" It means that anyone can connect to my network. That's not good. And that's how we were created. They didn't have a lot of time. They had to come up with something. It was not perfect. It was cracked immediately. And we do not use WEP anymore. Don't use it. Don't do it. Then they decided to go online and announce, "Okay guys, we need a new wireless standard for security." However, you're not allowed to ask for new hardware. You have to use the existing hardware and come up with an algorithm—something that will be better than WEP. However, you're not allowed to ask for new hardware. That's how the WPA was created. And then WPA 2. In most cases, you need a new piece of hardware. WPA Two is something that we use today. It's a standard for wireless because it uses AES for encryption. There is an equation of the form 80 x 211 = 8 x 2 x 1, and that is a solution available in many companies. You need an authentication server like Radius or Takax. It's beyond our discussion, if you're interested. For instance, there is a section, I think three or four lectures, dedicated to 802.1x in my CNA security training. A few words about Bluetooth I'm pretty sure you've seen it before. You have heard about Bluetooth. Maybe you have a headset that you bought online. Yeah, Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a standard that was created for exchanging data over short distances. It's particularly useful for wireless devices such as headsets. It's really great. I have a headset like that. It's really great. A lot of laptops have a built-in Bluetooth module. Thanks to that, you can take advantage of the standard and buy a device that is compatible with it. The last thing I want to mention on MPA (Microsoft), which they ask you to know, is wireless bridging. It means that you have two access points. And then what you want to do is create a network. It means that it's not going to be a white area network. However, you're going to bridge You're going to allow these guys—they're allowed to connect to that line. They are in the same local area network. However, because they cannot see each other, you can't run a cable; you can bridge. You can use two access points and ask them to bridge to create a point-to-point connection. It's not a great solution. There are a lot of issues with it. If you use high-end devices, it's okay. With some simple devices, you can face a lot of problems. In this section, we talked about wireless. That's not the end of our wireless discussion. As I mentioned, I am going to spend a lot of time talking about wireless, even more than Microsoft asks you to know, because it's important. That's why I added a separate lecture in the Hardware section dedicated to access points. I'll show you a Business Class access point. I'll show you a few other devices and things that you really need to know if you want to work with wireless. Thank you very much.
9. Network Topologies
Network topologies In this lecture, we'll talk about network topologies, with a focus on the start topology of a network topology. It is something that allows you to create. Consider a network diagram. Okay. can help you design a network. You can define that as the virtual shape structure of your network, as you can see. We have many different types of network topologies. Mash. Star tree bars A lot of them are not in use. The most common topologies found today are star and deepmash. These two topologies are really popular. Especially the start topology; that's how we create all our local area networks What do you mean by a full apology? I'd like to demonstrate and provide the following example: Consider and imagine there is a building with two floors; what would you do? You put two switches on the first floor, you take a cable, and you connect a cable like that to two ISPs (Internet service providers) you want to browse the internet with. Then you take a switch and put one on each floor, and you connect them like that; it's too small. But you get the point. Can you see a star here? That is an example of the star topology What's really important, and that's how we like to design our networks We don't want to have a single point of failure What we mean is if an ISP goes down. Everything dies in this company; it's not going to happen in the topology that I created because we can use ISP-2, let's say, as our core switch. That's the name. Core switch Let's say this guy dies. Okay? It's not a problem; the second switch can take over, and this guy can browse the internet using ISP 1. That's how we like to design our network. We want to have some redundancy. We want to make sure that if something fails, we're okay. We can go to Facebook now. Don't do it during your business hours two things that I decided to add to MTA Make sure that you understand physical and logical topology It's really important to understand how it works, and maybe you will be asked to create a network diagram. That's why you have to understand the main difference between these two topologies. Please review the diagram I prepared for you. physical topology It just shows how they are connected. It shows cables, ports, devices, and logical topology It demonstrates how the flow works in our case. You may inquire, "OK, there is one thing missing." What's wrong with this guy? Well. because that is beyond our discussion, however. There is a loop in this network; that's why there is a protocol called the spanning tree protocol that kicks in and is going to block one of the links, which means that this link is not in use Physical topology shows that link because it is in place, however. The second one is not going to show it because Switch Three will use Switch Two to go to Switch One. It will not go directly into this section. We talked about network topologies. I hope that you remember what a starting topology is and how you can create a physical and logical diagram. Make sure that you memorise all these things. I encourage you to go to Google and type "network topology." Check out a few more network diagrams that you can find online. Try to identify some devices that you find in there. That was our last lecture in understanding network infrastructure. Yes, we are going to move Section Number Two, Network Hardware. Our first lecture switches. Thank you very much.
10. Let's summarize this section
In this section, we talked about network infrastructures. I hope that you managed to learn a lot and understand what LANs, VPNs, and all these things are all about. There is one thing I want to tell you. VPNs are really important in my opinion. If you finish your MTA training, you should go and read a little more about VPNs because in the region, you need more than that. Of course, you are welcome to participate in my VPN training. I cover everything that you have to know in detail. Thank you very much.
Understanding Network Hardware
1. What to expect in this section
understanding network hardware. It's time to talk about switches and router access points. I'll show you a few devices as well. I understand; I understand it's really important to know how a router works and what a Mac address is. I believe it is even more critical to test all of these devices and see how they work. Thank you very much.
2. Why do we need switches in our networks?
MTA networking fundamentals. Why do we need switches? Two lectures. In the first one, we will cover hub switches and how they work. We'll talk about layer two, three, and four switches. Of course, we'll connect to the rareswitch and see that in action. Our lecture number two will be dedicated to collision domains and villains. And you all go. Well, I think we have already covered Villans. Yes, we have. However, now we will talk about villains again and discover a few new things and terms that you have to know. Let's start with switches. What is a switch? A switch is a device that we discussed when we talked about local area networks. That's why I am pretty sure you know that a switch allows you to create a local area network. You can connect computers, printers, network devices, scanners, access points, and so on. You can connect S switches to Svitch as well. Here is a very popular Cisco switch. 29 60. a small office to a home office switch Please note, you have eight ports available. Let me grab a pen. Okay, so we've got eight ports available over here that you can use to connect end devices. Then you have one dedicated gigabit port. It can be used as an uplink port. It means you can connect it to another switch. That's the idea. I'm pretty sure when Cisco did that Why? because these are fast Ethernet ports. Okay? So it means they can go up to 100 megabits per second. This one is a gigabit port, 1000 megabits per second. Gigabit switches are really expensive. That's why, in order to save money, many vendors only provide one or two ports. Thanks to that, you can always use it as an uplink port connected to another switch. Or if you have one really important server, you can connect it here as well. This is a slot for a fibre cable. Okay? You need a module. And then you can connect a fibre cable. Now, there is one more port that you can see. This one, the console port It is used to use a special cable. You connect it to your PC using the A.COM port. There is a USB device that you can use as well. If you don't have a serial port on your PC, In any case, you can use it to manage your switch to console. It means you can access it and, of course, manage it from the CLI command line interface. Do you remember when I showed you that when we covered basic commands like IP config, Mac addresses, and so on? a very popular switch. 2000 and 960 from Cisco. Now, you have to understand that there are two, three-layer, and four-layer switches. Layer-two switches are designed to work in your local area network. and they just forward traffic. They cannot do any routing. It means they are layer two switches. You can ask, "What does it mean, layer two? Do not worry. That is the OSI Model. We'll have a dedicated lecture for the OSI model. We'll talk about that. Layer Two means it works with Mac addresses. And switches like that do not really understand what an IP address is. They use it to allow you to manage a switch. However, they cannot route. That's. The main difference between layer two and layers three and four is rooting. If there is one thing you have to memorise from this section, I will ask you to memorise that. That one. Layer two switches are unable to root layer three. Layer four switches so they can route. They can allow you to use a switch with a built-in router. and later for switches. They can even allow you to apply some policy-based access lists and policies. Just policies. They work on layer four as well. There are managed and unmanaged switches. The one that you can see on the screen from Net Gear is an unmanaged switch. Do you remember the one that I showed you from Cisco a couple of minutes ago? 29 60? Of course, that was a managed switch. It's pretty easy to recognise because almost all managed switches—and I say almost all of them—apply to 90% of them. They have a console port. However, there are some switches that do not have a port like that. And then you can access them using a web interface. It applies to some mid-range switches from, for instance, Cisco, HP, and so on. However, it is a good idea to have a console port, because if something goes wrong, you can take a cable and see what's going on. Now, unmanaged switches, as you can see on the screen, just allow you to forward traffic. Unfortunately, you do not have access to a switch like that. It means no troubleshooting. How do you fix a switch like that? There are two things you can do. You can reboot or buy a new one. That's it. Unfortunately, it's not possible to manage it. You don't know what's going on. You're done rebooting. If it doesn't work, throw it away and buy a new one. a managed switch. It means that you can manage it. You can see what's going on. You can access a Web-based interface. Or you can use the CLI command-line interface. You can use a protocol like Telenet or the more secure SSH. Just make sure you're familiar with Tethernet or SSH. SSH is more secure. Tethernet is clear text. These protocols allow you to manage You just type "Telenet" and an IP address. Then you can access a switch or a router firewall and manage it that way. Let's check the rear switch. Here we go. I am connected to an HP 25-ten switch. We can see a nice dashboard with 123-4567 ports. This port is for a PC. Everything else is just some other switches that are in my network now. It is a nice Web interface. It means you can click on the port to change settings. Let's say I want to manage Port Number Seven. What you can do is click on it, and you can edit some settings. You can disable reports. If you want to do more configuration, you go under port configuration. port number seven. You double-click here. You can, for instance, change the speed. Auto means it will negotiate. If you go for 100 or 10, whatever the number is, it's full duplex. It means I can send and receive. Anyway, it is a good thing anyway.Auto is something that should be in place because both sides can negotiate and make sure that they're okay with everything. Okay, status and some logs. Yeah, you can see port status; that's everything Java-based, which is not reliable and might not be very patient. Here we go. Okay, we can see it's up. Yeah, I can see descriptions of a port and some counters. I can see send and receive bytes. I can see this purchase, which is a really important one, has errors. It is a good thing that you cannot see anything. From time to time, you can see something. It's not a big issue. If you see a few, that's fine. However, if you see, say, 10% or 15%, then it's not a good sign. In most cases, it means a bad cable. Or if you're not lucky, then the port is faulty on your switch. And unfortunately, you will have to replace your switch. Here it is. I just want to show you a picture of a switch. That is again an HP 25-1048 port switch. We can have a router with a built-in switch. I'm pretty sure that's what you have at home. Try and find your router, and in most cases, you will find a few yellow ports. That is a switch. But please remember, it's not a layer-three switch. No, it's a router with a bit in the switch. It's a huge difference, especially when you think about the price. That's where I want to stop. In our next lecture, we'll talk about hubs and villains. Thank you very much.
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