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Certification: CompTIA Linux+
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CompTIA Linux+ Certification Exams

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Unit 01 – Installation

8. Software Licensing Part

Now, behind the scenes, there have been a variety of different lawsuits over what Linux really is, and especially over the term "trying to call it Unix." Because Unix is licenced software, it's not free for you to download and load. And so that's why we're so careful to say that Linux is like Unix, but it's not Unix because Unix falls under a different licensing. The issue of BSD has the same type of problem in that we don't say it is Unix, but we also don't say that it's Linux, but we say it's Linux-like or Unix-like because of the legal issues about the licensing. And we're trying to describe that it's similar in how to use it, but it's not the same. And that's why you heard me doing all this kind of semantic fencing earlier in this unit because of the issues with the licensing. Now that I'm done with that, I'm not going to deal with it anymore because sometimes it still is confusing. What you need to know is: is it free for your corporation to use, or do you have to pay for a license? You want to research what you're using for the very purpose that if you are audited and you are found to have been violating licence restrictions, then your company could potentially pay a lot of money in fines, and you might find yourself looking for a new job. You want to make sure you're following the proper licencing models that were assigned to each of the software or operating systems you install. And that's where I'll leave this whole issue about software licensing.

9. Non-licensing Terminology

There are some other terms associated with the nonlicensing group, all right? That means all that discussion about licencing is now gone. We're not going to talk about it anymore. So, one of the most common things we hear about all the time is freeware and shareware. In fact, there are websites like Shareware.com where you go to download stuff for free. It's not a licencing model, it's just giving you trial software. Trial software means that what you have will work. Maybe the full version will work for a limited time, or you'll have a limited version of the full model. And if you like the little piece that you saw and you want to open up the rest of it, then you pay for the software. You might also hear about the Creative Commons. That's a non-licensing term for the documentation or books and things that deal with the types of issues that are not software but actual, tangible things that I can touch, not a bunch of magnetically stored ones and zeros. You also might hear about the public domain, which is the opposite of a copyright. So if you think about it, a song generally is not in the public domain unless somebody allows it to be. It is a copyrighted type of file—really a series of words that are sung in musical-format lyrics, if you will. And as a copyright, it can't be duplicated without permission or without paying for it. If I put it in the public domain, that's the opposite of a copyright. That means that everybody can have it. It's basically owned by the people. And we can sometimes say that even Linux is not copyrighted, is not protected, and is freely available for people to use, reverse engineer, and otherwise improve on. So that's why we call it the open source community," and that would be part of that public domain.

10. Demo - Exploring Linux and Licensing

Alright, so what you see here is one of the many distros that you can use in the world of Linux. I have chosen Backtrack 3 because it's one of my favorites. It is a setting basically, or a distro that hasall of my and security tools and we'll see someother ones but I just like this one a lot. And we're going to go here to the distrow. Watch if I can spell that. And we're going to take a look at the different types of options that you have as far as what you can download in the world of Linux. Now this is a very busy web page, and because of the resolution of my screen, you can't see everything that's here. But what I'm going to do is go up to the major distributions, which is what I would encourage you to take a look at, and it's going to show you the top ten distributions based on what people are downloading. I'm going to scroll through here, and as I scroll through, what I want you to see is that it describes each one. It tells you when the different versions of Ubuntu—here, when it was first announced in 2004—were released. As I scroll on down, it talks about some of the pros and cons that you have with each of these options that you have for available additions; the processor even talks about some different alternatives that you might have and the type of desktop that it's using. And the purpose of going through this, by the way, is just to let you be able to read through the features that are being advertised with each of these. Now one of the other things you can talk about here is sometimes looking for information about licencing and support, and that's a big thing here. Here we're talking about what looks like a predictable six-month release schedule with occasional long-term support releases. That might be something that also needs to be considered when you're making your decisions about what you want to use. Fedora here unveiled, it says back in 94,95 by the folks with red hat. And as we go through these, it talks about the pros—outstanding security, a large number of packages, strict adherence to the free software philosophy. Again, the priorities tend to be enterprise features rather than desktop usability. So if you're just a home user, you might want to not use this. And again, it just talks about different options. We're going to use Fedora Twelve as one of our options as we go through this. So the purpose again of taking you throughhere is that you want to start doingsome research, looking at the pros and consof the different versions that are out there. I mean, here's one that Novels works with, and it says that the setup and graphical utilities are sometimes seen as bloated and slow. That might be a feature—or an antifeature, if you would—that makes you decide. I don't think I want to use this on my desktop or as one of my server options. So, your choice, as you go through the nice things, is that as you go through each of these, you can actually download them, install them, and try them out yourself. It does sound like it's going to take you a bit of time. But that's okay. It's a research project to give you what you need. So, again, that was just a quick look at Distro Watch. And as I said, I actually downloaded Fedora twelve. And that's one of the files we're going to take a look at when we do the installations. So, what I did is, of course, download it from District Watch when I downloaded it.And rather than make you watch me download it, I'll have it ready for us to go when we do our installation.

11. Topic B: Pre-installation Tasks Part

Now let's talk about the preinstallation tasks. We've got all that legal jargon out of the way and ended it with just saying, "Make sure you follow the right licenses." We've got that solution. We hope you know what the licencing issues are going to be. So now we're going to talk about installation and what we need to do before we actually start installing Linux.

12. Pre-installation Tasks Part

So if I were to give you a checklist—kind of call it the preinstallation tasks—the first thing you would have to do is gather the details about the hardware on your particular server. Now, this is especially important if you have a technically complex Flex distribution that needs to know exactly what type of hardware you have. So it can either include the necessary drivers or inform you that "Hey, that hardware, we don't support it." You're going to have to find some drivers to make that work. So you should gather all sources of technical details about that system, like your interrupt settings, your IO addresses, the types of hardware, and everything else. Now, I know that people are saying, "Wait a second, I don't need that with Windows." Well, technically, and I say this technically, when you go to install, Windows usually does a hardware check to see if there's anything incompatible before it actually begins. So it kind of does that for you. But then again, it also makes sure that it has drivers that work for almost all of the different hardware that you're going to use. It's kind of invisible to us as we're putting it together. Now, I'm not saying that can't happen with the Linux distributions because some do include that type of capability. And there is where we get into the fun of all of the different distributions. So if you know you have a technically complex distribution, gather the information so you can at least check to see if it's going to be compatible or to make sure you know what drivers you need to be able to add in or what libraries you need to add in to be able to make it run and work with your hardware. You also have to choose where you're going to install it. That's going to get down to hard drive partitioning. That means you choose the destination of the installation. Now, most of the distributions will make that an option for you, but not all of them will. So again, it goes back to understanding what you chose and what my options are. Now, some of you may say, "Well, look, I'm not sure if I like this idea of utilising my computer that's running Windows as my new Linux machine, because if I put it on there and I don't like how Linux works, then I have lost my whole Windows thing." Well, no, that's not true. Again, you can have different partitions. You can have Windows on one partition, and you can put this on a different partition, or you can use a different type of installation that actually creates a hard drive out of your memory, which is what we call sometimes a live CD or live DVD installation. In that case, it basically boots up this operating system from your DVD Rom drive, utilising your memory for hard drive storage, and has no effect on your underwear. relying on the Windows Off option that you have. So you have a lot of options when it comes to choosing the destination for where it's installed.

13. Pre-installation Tasks Part

The next thing is, how are you going to get it there? Well, as I just mentioned, you have DVDs that can boot up on themselves or can be used as installations. Live CDs, an ISO file—which is generally the file that we call the image of a DVD, or we usually burn it to a DVD for DVD installations—or a regular package that you install like any other software program So you have a lot of options about the installation. It all depends on where you located it, how you downloaded it, how you acquired it, and what this particular file is designed to be used for. In fact, especially with your ISO files A lot of people also run these in a virtual environment because they can basically use it like a live DVD for an installation with something like VMware, so they can install an option or a version of Linux in a virtual environment without again affecting their Windows. So you have a lot of options, and I just threw out a bunch of them for you. That's where it's going to take a little bit of research and a little bit of planning. Again, reinstalling is the task, right? a bit of planning on what you want to do and how you want to do the installation.

14. Pre-installation Tasks Part

Alright, so as you go through this checklist, the next part of the course is to download the installation files. Now, most of the distributions from the distros are available online. I think distro.watch.org, if I remember right, is a common place people go. But if you just do a Google or Bing search—or whatever search tool you use—for downloadable Linux distros, you're going to find hundreds of them available to you. Now, if you get an ISO file, then what you can use is any type of disc burning software to burn that ISO image to a disk. So you can use this DVD or theCD to actually do the installation with. In fact, most of those ISO files are designed that youdownload it as an ISO, you burn it to the DVDand then you can install stall off the DVD drive. because most systems are designed to look for installation files on that media drive.

15. Installation Types

All right, so for the installation types, I've already given away most of them. CDs, DVDs, the ISO file Don't forget, USB drives can contain the information you need to boot up from the live CD. Or even the live DVD VD, where I can boot to what appears to be the actual CD or DVD drive by utilising my RAM drive. That's what we call it when we make a fake hard drive inside your memory. allows me another installation. It's temporary until you turn it off, then it's gone. Net installation allows you to download a small bootable file that could also be on a USB drive, and then you can use that as your bootable source of media, at which point it can then go out to the network spot and download the rest of the file. Or NFS, or network file sharing, which is a method of sharing files across the network. The same as having a Windows share or performing the Windows file share. Bye.

16. Installation Files

Now, your installation files can depend on the type of machine you want to install it on. In other words, you might find versions that are designed for an Intel or any of the clones that are out there. It could be specific to the type of processor, or even the processor type, 32-bit or 64-bit. Now remember, you can run a 32-bit version on a 64-bit processor, but we can't go the other direction. And if you do run 32 on 64, you're not going to get the full benefit of that 64-bit operating system or that processor. But you have to make sure you choose, again, the right installation files. So what I'm saying here doesn't sound to me any different than any other application or even Windows. I mean, Windows has 32-bit versions and 64-bit versions. They might be CPU-specific; they might work differently for different versions of the different operating systems. For instance, in their Office program, they have a version for Mac, and they have a version for Windows. So that's where we've got to look when we're talking about installation: to make sure that you've gone through the pre-installation and you know specifically what type of files you need.

17. ISO Burning Applications

Now, if you download that ISO file, then you need to have an ISO burning application. Now, there are many that are included for free as a part of Mac OS X. And with Linux, you also have a bunch of options with Windows that are free or free to use for a short time. You might look at programmes like Info Recorder, ISO Recorder, Nero's, Burning Rom, and Easy CD Creator, and there are so many more that it's tough to really get through the entire list. What I'm trying to say is it's avery common program, very easy to get program. It doesn't need any fancy bells and whistles. It's as simple as taking an ISO file and burning it to a DVD so that you can use a DVD Rom as a bootable drive to install the operating system.

18. Topic C: Linux Installation

Alright, now we're going to talk about the actual installation of Linux. I know the whole unit we discussed was about installation. What do we do? We hit licences because that'll burn you if you don't have the licencing done for preinstallation tasks. Because if you don't do that, you're going to have potential issues with the installation. But once we get through all of the groundwork and foundation, now comes the actual installation.

19. File Systems

Alright, so file systems Every hard drive is usually broken down into a file system. In other words, there's usually what I call the "table of contents," which is the list of the files, programs, everything that's installed, when it was created, when it was modified, maybe even owner information. And then it contains the actual address of where on the drive you'd actually find the file. So that's why it's a table of contents that says this file is actually on page, whatever. Having said that, then you have to have a file system that works for your installation. Now, it does support the windows.NTFS and Fat 32 It also supports using the removable media, or "Fat Virtual FatV Fat" as it's called, or "Fat 32" as well. But Linux also has its own file systems that you can utilise in the installation. meaning that if you have a hard drive that doesn't have to also coexist with another operating system like Windows, you might choose some of those. Now they have the extension two, or ext2, which stands for the second extended file system. Generally, that's used for the removable medium. The third extended file system, or extreme, is the journaling file system, which means logging. Now, logging, you have to remember, is kindof a temporary where we keep track ofwhat's happening type of a system. Now a log could be in a database. A history of changes can also be a history of events or what's been occurring in your system. And there's also the fourth extended file system, which was designed as an improvement upon ext 2 or the second extended file system to support large file systems. Now, we had that same issue between Fat and Fat 32, which was how large could the hard drive be versus NTFS? Well, let's think about it. Fat goes back to Fat 32 was also available, I think in 1990 or '97, when we were excited about a two-gig hard drive. And it worked just fine. We landed four gigs. We started having problems because Fat couldn't work with a drive larger than four gigs. So we had to deal with Fat 32. But guess what? That Fat 32 is not going to take care of you when you have a terabyte worth of storage. So that's where we get into newer and better operating systems for the hard drive. Let's call them again. They're called file systems. So having said that, the fourth extended file system was designed to be able to handle file systems up to one Xabyte, which is huge. It goes beyond the terabyte. Other options that are available that you could use are the Journaling File System, or JFS, by IBM and the Riser File System for journaling purposes. There's also an XFS, which is another journaling type of file system that's used by Silicon Graphics and often used very well with larger files, but also with their Irax operating system.

20. Partitioning

Now, the partition on which you install is also an important aspect of the preinstallation. Remember that if you install on a brand new partition, you're not going to affect any other operating system that was installed on that partition. Most of your modern utilities are considered non-destructive when creating new partitions. There was a day when I knew that if I used something like FDISK Windows, I could probably wipe out everything I had trying to make these partitions. Or if I had a really big partition that I wasn't using and I wanted to shrink it up a little bit, we couldn't do it unless we bought some really cool things like Partition Magic. Today, this is not an issue. Most utilities are nondestructive. Now, there are a couple of tools you can use. There's a command-line tool that's called "Parted," which is the equivalent of partitioning your hard drive program. That's a GUI programme called G parted. Anyway, you can use Parted from the command line to modify or create partitions. And once that's done, you now have a storage location that can be created during the installation phase. The graphical part, the one with the GUI—the graphical user interface—was called G Parted. And again, it's software designed to create or resize drive partitions. It can even resize an existing Windows partition. And again, remember, being non-destructive means not destroying the content or the ability of that partition to be utilised by that other operating system. Now, these tools, Parted and GParted, are often built into your installer. They might not be if it's an older version that you're installing. It might be a separate programme you have to bring in to get everything ready for the installation. But generally, you'll see it as an option as you're going through the installation. Installation again: In today's world, installing software is very simple because all of this stuff has been put together for us. So we only have to really work interactively to answer a couple of questions.

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