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6. Network Layer

In our next section, we are going to talk about network layers, and in the first, we'll take a look at layer three protocols, then routers' routing processes, and basic router configuration. an Internet Protocol address. An IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two primary functions: host or network identification and location addressing. IPV-4 defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPV for addresses, a new version, IP version 6, is used, and this guy is using 128 bits for the IP address. And when the PDU-named segment reaches the network layer, this layer adds the IPV Four or IP Version Six headers to the segment, and the PDU name is converted to a packet in our network layer. And let's take a look at the IP version four header now. And as you can see, there are lots of fields in the IP version 4 header and their version field, their type of service, field header length, field total length, field fragment offset protocol, TTL header checksum, source and destination, IP addresses, and IP option. Please keep in mind that there are lots of fields in here, as you can see. As we discussed in the first slide of our course, let's look at the IPV for limitations. Almost 50 million devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020, but available IPv4 addresses are decreasing. In spite of IPV 4, it is still the most commonly used protocol. It seems like our next step will be IP versioning, which can provide a broad IP address range. IP version six provides a huge IP address range and a more secure environment. With IPV 4, we will not need I'm sorry, with IP version six, we will not need network address translation, which converts private IP addresses into public IP address blocks. And let's take a look at the differences between IPV 4 and IP Version 6. The first difference is address size. IPV four is a 38 bit number, whileIP version six is 128 bit number. The second is the address format. IPV 4 is shown in dotted decimal notation. As you can see, there are dots between the decimal numbers, while IP Version Six is shown in hexadecimal notation. And there's a difference in the perfect notation as well. And the biggest difference between these guys is the number of addresses that they are supporting. As you can see there, IPV four issupporting this and IP version six is supportinga really huge number of IP addresses. Let's take a look at the IP version six header. Now. IP version six header is pretty straightforward. As you can see on the screen, there are 14 fields in the IP Version 4 header. As you can see, version IHL is a type of ServiceTotallake Apple, but there are just eight fields in IP version 6 headers, and they are version traffic class, flow level, payload length, next header, hop limit, source, and destination addresses. Let's take a look at the routers. Now, a router is a layer 3 network gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more networks and that it operates at the network layer of the OSI module. The main function of a router is IP routing using the routing table entries. If you remember from our previous slides onthe switch there was a Mac address tableand switch for making the switching by usingthe Mac address entries on the Mac table. But what routers are doing is this: this is a router. This guy is keeping a routing table, which consists of IP address entries, and routers are making IP routing by using the IP addresses kept in the routing table. And here is the back plane of a router. As you can see, there are some pieces of equipment in here, such as an on/off switch, an input power connection, gigabit ethernet ports, USB ports, and so on. If you want to check the rather physical waves rather deeply, there's a great app on the Google Play Store called "Cisco 3D interactive catalog," and you can check the rather physical waves of the rather deeply there. Let's take a look at the router memory. Now, in router memory, we have four types of memory. The first one is Ram Ram, the second is Roam, and the other ones are MIRM and the Flash. In the RAM, we are storing the running iOS, which is the operating system of the router, and its running configuration, routing and arc tables, and packet buffers. The boot-up instructions and limited iOS are stored in the row. In the MVM we are storing this startup configand in the Flash we are storing the iOSitself and the other system was and please keepin mind that just REM is volatile. So how do routers boot up? Let's take a look at this. The first thing when reader is bootingup is power on self tests. On the step, the hardware is being checked. Then the ROM loads the bootstrap programme and searches for iOS, which is the operating system of the router. Then iOS is loaded from the flash, and the startup configuration is loaded from the RAM, and in the last step, the moot process is completed as everything is loaded into the RAM. Let's take a look at the routing process. Now, if the source and destination have the same network ID, the source sends the packet directly to the destination. Guys, that's a really important thing that you should keep on your mind. But what is the network ID? Network ID is a portion of the IP address that is used to identify individuals or devices on a network such as a local area network or the internet. In our latest section, we'll see how we can calculate the network ID value as well. But if Source and the destination have different network IDs from each other, Source sends the packet to the default gateway. This time, a default gateway is the node in a computer network using the Internet Protocol Suite that serves as the forwarding router to the other networks when no other route specification matches the destination IP address of a packet. For example, here, PC One wants to communicate with PC Four. They have different network IDs. the network ID of PC One. Is that one? The network ID of PC four is 20. I'm going to show you how I calculate these numbers in later sections, because they have different network IDs. If PC One wants to communicate with PC Four, this guy directly throws the packet to the default gateway, which is the internal interface IP address of this router in the middle. However, if PC One wishes to communicate with PC Two, the packet is not forwarded to the default gateway and is instead forwarded directly to the PC due to their shared network IDs. So let's take a look at how we can configure an IP address for Switch. Now, if you want to communicate the default gateway on a switch, the command we are using is Ipdefault gateway, which is the IP address of the router's internal interface. And if you want to configure a default gatewayfor host, for example, for this PC, if Iwant to configure the default gateway on the Internetoptions, there's a field showing as the default gateway. I can simply fill this in here with the IP address of the default gateway and configure my host. So the next thing we are goingto focus on is the routing table. In computer networking, a "routing table" is a data table stored in a router or a network computer that lists the best paths to the particular network destinations and, in some cases, the distances associated with those routes. The key term here is "the best path." For example, let's say that you want to go from London to Manchester. What you're going to do is open Google Maps, perhaps, and London is here and Manchester is here, let's say. And when you open the Google Maps, youuse the London to the from field andyou enter the Manchester to the destination field. Then Google Maps displays a few alternative routes from London to Manchester but only offers the best route. That's the faster one. That's the fastest one. So running tables is something like that too. In the running table, you will always have the same path, or, I'm sorry, always have the best path for the particular destination. In here, we are seeing an example of the routing table, and we need to type "show IProd" simply to display the routing table in here. And as you can see here, for example, that's a routing table entry that shows us how we can reach the 10 network via route 16. It's saying ask them—that's the best path. We also have another best path here. We are also routing tables on our PCs too. And we can see our PCs' running tables by typing route print into our command windows. So as I told you, if I want to check the router's routing table, I'm typing the show IP route command, and I'm seeing the best paths for the particular destinations. So how am I going to x-mine the routing table entry? So in a routing table entry, we have some characters, some text characters, and some numbers. As you can see, the first character you are seeing on the routing table entry identifies how the network was learned by the router. For example, if this route was learned statically or by a dynamic routing protocol such as EIGRP, OSPF, or something like that, the second field identifies the destination on the network. Then this field identifies the administrative distance, which is the trustworthiness of the route source. Then this field identifies the metric to reach the dreamer network, and this field identifies the next hop IP address to reach the neural network. and this will identify the amount of time since the network was discovered. And here is the outgoing interface on the router to reach the destination network. So let's take a look at router packet forwarding. Now, routers automatically know the directly connected networks' guys, and remote networks must be learned by static routing or dynamic routing protocols. For example. if Router One wants to communicate with Router Two. What I'm going to do is I'm going to goto Router Zero and say this guy that hey dude. if you want to communicate with this network. For example. Because this guy knows the directly connected interfaces automatically, and this guy does not know anything about them in here. in here, in here, and in here also. So what I'm going to do is go to this guy, and I'm going to configure something saying, "Hey, Router Zero, if you want to communicate with network 20, send your packet too." For example, here, or if you want to communicate with 30, send your packet here. I can manually configure this or I can use the dynamic routing protocol, saying that if you want to go here, use the EIGRP protocol, if you want to go here, use the OSPF protocol, or something like that. I'm going to show you in much more detail in our later sections again.So let's take a look at the basics rather than the configuration. Now, in a basic configuration, we can simply configure a hostname, for example. So, let's say we have our other names in configuration mode, and I need to type the hostname command and give our device a host name. The host name has been changed to R 0. And if I want to configure the interface, I need to go to the interface mode by typing interface and the name of the interface, which is the faster one for this one, and I'm typing the IP address and the IP address of the interface and the subnet mask of the interface. All right, guys, if you cannot understand what I'm telling you about in this section, don't worry. We are going to make separate wonderful packet tracer lab examples, and you'll get all of these concepts easily. Trust me. So, to verify the interface configuration, the command I'm using this time is show IP interface brief. And I can check the IP addresses attached to each interface for you by using this command.

7. Transport Layer

In this section, we are going to talk about Transport Layer OSI. Layer four. The transport layer provides host-to-host communication services such as connection-oriented data, stream support, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing for applications. The most common protocols used in this layer are TCP and UDP. Let's take a look at TCP versus UDP. TCP is suited for applications that require high reliability, and transmission time is relatively less critical. UDP is suitable for applications that need fast, efficient transmissions, such as games. UDP's stateless nature is also useful for servers that answer small queries from huge numbers of clients. Another difference is that TCP rearranged data packets in the order specified. UDP has no inherent order as all packets are independent of each other. If ordering is required, it has to be managed by the application layer. The speed of TCP is slower than UDP. UDP is faster because error recovery is not attempted. It's a best-effort protocol. TCP handles flow control. TCP requires three packets to set up a socket connection before any user data can be sent. TCP handles reliability and congestion control. UDP does not have an option for flow control, guys. And lastly, TCP is connection oriented.Once a connection is established, data can be sent bidirectionally, but UDP is a simpler and connectionless protocol. So in computer networking, port numbers are part of everything. Information used to identify the senders and receivers of message port numbers allows different applications on the same computer to share network resources and emotions. Let's say that we have a client in here, and let's say that these clients want to use different applications, such as electronic mail, HTML pages, surfing on the web, and internet chat. Maybe if this guy wants to use this different application, it should use different port numbers to reach these different applications. So we have a command that we can use on our laptops or PCs or Windows machines or something like that. On the command line, if we type Netstat, we can see some statistics. Netstat is a command line network utility tool that displays network connections for the transmission control protocol, both incoming and outgoing routing tables, and a number of networking devices. As you can see here, these are the source IP addresses. These are the source ports, and these are the destination ports that the user wants to reach. For example, in here, this guy wants to reach the ad port, and the communication is established. So the port numbers in the range from zero to 1023 are the well-known ports or the system ports. They are used by system processes that provide common network services. For example, a well-known port is FTP, and FTP uses the TCP protocol, and the remote number of FTP is 20. for example, telnet. This is a remote access protocol, and Telnet uses the TCP protocol; the protocol number is 23. The DNS domain name system protocol can use UDP or TCP, and the port number is 53. In data communications networks, packet segmentation is the process of dividing data packets into smaller units for transmission over the network. Package segmentation happens at layer four of the OSI module, or the transport layer. Segmentation may be required when the data packet is larger than the maximum transmission unit supported by the network and when the network is unreliable. And it is desirable to divide the information intosmaller segments to maximise the probability that each oneof them can be delivered correctly to the destination. So let's talk about the TCP and UDP details. Now, the client-server module is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requests, called clients. If you try to open the webpage, for example, your computer's web browser is a client that requested services from the server, which is technically referred to as an HTTP server. So you could read the web page about networks. So in here, as you see, we have some protocols that are using the TCP protocol and their FTP file transfer protocol, Telnet, and HTTP. This is the protocol when we use when weare surfing on the web, as you know. So these clients are using some port numbers in this range, as you can see, and they're interacting with the server to get the services from them. For example, this PC wants to take an FTP service from the server, so it's using the destination port of 20 on the server. For example, this PC 2 wants to take an HTTP service from the server, so it's using destination port 80 while it's connecting to the server. So let's go ahead with the three-way handshake. A three-way handshake is a method used in a TCP/IP network to create a connection between a local host and server. It's a three step method that requires boththe client and server to exchange scene andact acknowledgement packets before actual data communication begins. To establish a TCP session, we have seen CIN and X steps in the same step. client sends the session request to the server. In the response, the server replies with a scene ACK. Then finally, the client sends an act back to the server. For example, let's say that the client wants to establish a TCP session with the server. What the client is doing first is sending a sympathetic with a sequence number of 1000. The server gets the sympathies and replies back with a scene and acknowledgement message, saying that the sequence number of this message is 2000 and acknowledging that you sent me the sequence number 1000 packet, all right, and increasing the number of these sequences by one, as you can see. Then the third step is the client responding back with an EC again and saying that this EC has a sequence number of 1001 because my Sims' sequence number was 1000 and this is my next packet that I'm sending to you. And the sequence number is 1001. And I am acknowledging the packet that you sent me with the sequence number of 2000 and the acknowledgement number session of 2001. All right, when we try to terminate theTCP session, the steps we are using isthe first fin, then EC plus fin. After this, the first is a fin from the receiver site. Then this guy is sending an EC. Again. The steps are Fin, Egg, and Finch. Let's talk about the TCP reorder process right now. If you want to send a packet from site A to site B, as you can see here, you have two different networks with IP network one and IP network two. When packets are being sent, segments may be split into different paths. Some of them may prefer the IP network one, and some of them may prefer the IP network two. TCP reorders these packets at the destination, and this process is known as the TCP reorder process. This process is not available for UDP guys; please pay attention to the fact that TCP windowing is an option to increase the receive window size alone in the transmission control protocol above its maximum value. The TCP window size is simply an advertisement of how much data the receiving device is willing to receive at any point in time. This value can be used by the receiving device to control the flow of data or as a flow control mechanism. As you can see in here, there's a TCP sessionbetween the PC and PC is sending a packet tothis guy and this guy acknowledged the first guy. Okay, then the PC sends the packet to and packet 3, and the server responds with an acknowledgement message once more. But in here, this guy is sending four, five, and six to the server. But this time what is going on in here is the acknowledgement number is seven, which means I couldn't get the sequence number seven because in here, please pay attention, I am sending the sequence number one and the acknowledgement is two. In here I'm getting the sequencenumber three and acknowledgement is four. But what this means is I'm sending an acknowledgement of seven, which means I got sequence number six. Lastly, then the PC is sending the seven, eight,nine again the seven and plus eight and nine. The server then acknowledges with a ten, indicating that everything is fine. So let's take a look at the UDP protocol some.Now UDP provides, as I told you, unreliable data transfer. And as I told you, we don't have a reorder process that's a connectionless protocol, so loss of my data may occur if I use it for an application that requires fast delivery and no delay. And UDP has a client-server module as well as TCP too.The UDP protocol is used by protocols such as DNS, TCP/IP, and SNMP. So for example, if PC one wants to get the DNS server from this guy, that guy sends the UDP packets and says, "Hey guy, Mastination port is 53." That means I need DNS service from you. For example, let's take a look at the disc client, which is PC 2. This is an SNMP client, and SNMP uses UDP. So this is sending a UDP message with the destination port of 161 to get the SNMP service from this server.

8. Cisco IOS

We have three chapters. In the first chapter, we'll take a look at a Cisco iOS overview. In the second chapter, we are going to talk about iOS configuration basics, and in the last chapter, we are going to talk about IP addressing of the devices. So what is the Cisco iOS? Cisco iOS, originally an Internetwork operating system, is a family of software used on most Cisco devices. iOS is a package of routing, switching, internet working, and telecommunication functions integrated into a multitasking operating system. As you know, most of our hardware devices have a software operating system. For example, I'm using a PC with the operating system Windows. I'm using an cell phone and I'musing an operating system of maybe Android. For example, I'm using an iPhone, and my operating system is iOS. That's not the same thing as here, but it follows the same logic. Okay, these are both the operating systems of the devices and of Cisco devices. operating system is known as Cisco iOS. Let's take a look at the features of iOS. As we have talked about in the previous section, Cisco iOS is located in Flash. This is a flash. As you can see, iOS is located here, but not when the device is working. As we have talked also about this in previoussections too, iOS is compact to volatile ran. Cisco is updating the iOS files, and our iOS image can be updated. And iOS provides the same software-hardware communication as the other operating systems. So, how do we gain access to the Cisco iOS devices? The Cisco iOS Command Line Interface is the primary user interface used for configuring, monitoring, and maintaining the Cisco devices. DCLI allows you to enter partial Cisco iOS configuration commands. The software recognises a command when you enter enough characters in the comment to uniquely identify it. NCL can be accessed using by aconsole port, telnet, SSH or Oxpot. These two methods are used when we try to access the Cisco iOS device remotely. And the first access method is a console port. If you want to use the console port, you should be next to this device or you should be using a console server when you're next to the iOS device. As you can see in the picture, there's a spatial cable to connect it. You plug this one, you plug this side to your computer, and you plug the other side. The console part of the Cisco Device Console is accessible. Even if a device is down in the network, there's no problem reaching it. The device must be in a safe place to prevent unauthorised access to the console port. And console ports must be configured with a strong password. The second method by which we can access a Cisco device is using Telnet. Television is used for accessing resources remotely. Over the network, access is lost if that network is down. Please keep in mind that Telnet is an insecure method to reach the device remotely because the session is not encrypted. Also, keep in mind that if you want to configure telnet on your device, you should set a password so that, for example, you are in the corporate location A and the device you want to reach is in the corporate location B. There's a network between these devices, so you can reach that device using that network. There should be a network to reach the remote via telnet, and if the network is down, you cannot reach the remote twice using telnet. Another method is SSH, which means secure shell. Secure Shell is used for accessing remotely over anetwork like telnet, and access is lost if thenetwork is down again, this also requires the passwordstoo, but SSH provide stronger password, authentication and encryptionand that's why it is Secure method. So we always offer to use SSH instead of telnet all the time.And if you want to reach the devices remotely, orif you want to reach the devices via console port,you need to use a terminal emulation program. These programmes are used for accessing advice using console telnet or SSH. Popular programmes are pretty secureCRP or maybe hyper terminal.In the picture, you should see the PuTTY interface. For example, if you want to connect to a deviceusing an SSH session, you choose this SSH and youtype the host IP address to this area. For example, something like something like that. And when you click Open, you open your SSH session. If you want to connect to the Internet, choose here. If you want to connect to a console port, you should choose this serial connection. And let's take a look at the Cisco iOS and iOS mods. In the Cisco iOS mode, we have four modes. The first one is the user exec mode. When you are in user exec mode, you cansee a sign bigger than sign that shows youthat you're in the user exec mod. In the privileged exec mode, you see a "pounds sign" in the global configuration mode that shows you that you're in global configuration mode config.We also have specific configuration modes, such as interface mode. For example, when you open an interface, you see that each mode has different commands that you can use. You can use fewer commands in the user-exec mode. You can use fewer commands in the privileged execution mode. When compared to the global configuration mode, the global configuration mode allows you to configure the device, change the IP addresses, set the routing protocols, and so on. However, when in privileged executable mode, you can run the show commands and perform monitoring. There's a limited area, and the most limited area is the user exec mode. When you are in global configuration mode and you want to set an IP address on an interface, you should get into a specific configuration mode like interface mode. For example, when you first connect to a device via your notebook. First, you are in the user regulator mod, and if you want to make an interface configuration, you should type enable to get into the privileged executor mod. If you want to configure an interface, first type "config terminal" to enter the configuration mode. And lastly, you should go to the interface that you want to configure. For example like interface first internet one. We are going to talk too much about these things in our next session, but please keep in mind how we switch between those modes, and here is how we navigate between IELTS modes. As I told you, if you want to go from user exec to privileged egg, you should type enable. If you want to pass from privileged exec mode to global config mode, you should type confd. If you want to pass from global configuration mode to a specific interface configuration mode, you should type the interface that you want to go into, like interface one. And please keep in mind that the exit command is used for passing to upper mode, for example, when you're in configuration mode. If you type exit, you can go to the prevalent executive mode, and Cisco iOS has really, really cool options. really cool. Help. The first one is contact-sensitive help. Please keep in mind that the question mark is your best friend when you're on Cisco iOS. For example, we have a comment named "Clock Set." This is the name of our command, which should be set like a clock set.This is how we should type the clock set" or something like that. But if you type something like "coke," as you can see that you forgot to see it in here, iOS warns you that that's saying that an unknown comment was made to you, as you can see, and you check the comment that you type and you see that "oh my God, I forgot the C," it would be "clock." And as I told you, that question mark is always your best friend if you forget the comment and can type that after CL If you type the question mark here, it will show you the commands that you can use, such as cr question mark. iOS tells you that, man, you can use a clearer clock. Choose one of them. For example, I load the clock and push enter. Here is another warning; it is saying incomplete command." OK? Because, as I previously stated, the entire command is clocked set and current time when I see this warning clock space, and if I type my best friend again, you can see that the comments that I can use in this scenario show that I can only use one command, which is set. And here's the explanation of the command: all of the saying is that you can use set in here, which means that you can set the time and date, so let's go ahead with the context-sensitive help. For example, here is our commandclock setting: blah, blah, blah. And after that, when I hit the ender, that shows me that it's incomplete again. And after I use the question mark, that tells me that I should use the month of the year by typing this and the same scenario again. And here are the shortcuts and hub keys that I can use in the Cisco iOS Tab. This is a really awesome feature. You can complete the remainder of the command on the keyboard using Tab. And what we really use most is a down or up arrow. When you do down arrow, you scroll forward throughthe former comments and we use the up arrow. You go back and read the previous comments. For example, I type IP address blah blah blah, and after that, I type, for example, router OSDF blah blah blah. If I want to navigate between these, I should hit the up and down arrows, and you can use the Console C to abort the current command and exit the configuration mode. And you can use Control Shift Six to interruptand iOS pros fast, such as ping or phrases. For example, if you pin something somewhere and you want to stop it immediately, you should use the Control-Shift fixed combination. And another great feature is abbreviated commands. Commands can be abbreviated to the minimum number of characters that identify the Unix selection. For example, you can use Shint interfaces instead of Show interfaces. That's a really cool thing to use. And here are the commonly used show comments. One show version Please pay attention to the fact that we are in the user-privileged mod when we are using the Show commands. The first command is Show version, which displays the iOS version and device information, etc. Showiparp, which displays the IP Mac address mappings to us, is another command we use. Another great Show command is Show Flash, with which we can display documents in the Flash. And here is the key command that you can use: show running config, which displays the current configuration running on the device. This is going to be the most important command that you're going to use. We also have Shop CDP neighbors, which show us connected Cisco neighbors. We have a shop for villains to display the villain's information. And we have the Show Mac Address Table, which displays the Mac address table to us. And we have also got Show IProute," which shows us the routing table. And let's take a look at the CISCO iOS configuration. Basics. The first thing we are going to check is hostnames. Host names are the identities of the devices in the network. And we should really need to configure this because it's difficult to identify devices in a network without a hostname. Hostnames start with a letter and end with a letter or digit, and space is not allowed. For example, you can use the host name like "this my switch seven." It's okay, but you cannot use that switch. You cannot get my number seven by using a space. And here's how we can configure the hostname. As you can see that we are in the privilegedexec mode and I'm using configure terminal command to getinto the config mode and when I am in configmode, I'm using hostname my switch seven and that's it. And here is how we can limit access to devices. Access to devices can be limited using by passwords,as I can tell you before as I toldyou before, you should set passwords for console, tenantand SSH sessions that provide security for an electoralizedaccess and please don't forget to implement it. And if I want to limit access to the privileged execution mode, I have two options I can use an enable password or I can use an enable secret post password if I use the enabled secret password to limit access to the privileged executable, which also encrypts the password. So it's recommended to use the enable secret command. For example, I'm in the privileged executive role, as you can see in the picture, and I'm going into the configuration mode because I'm going to set the enable password. When I get into configuration mode, I type enablepassword Cisco and enable secret class. As you can see, I set two different passwords to limit access to the privileged executive. And when I use the showrunning command You can see that the password that I set with enable password is clear text, and I can easily monitor it, but the password that I set with enable secret command is hashed, as you can see on the left. But as you can see, the poo I see something encrypted, and that's why we should use enable secret to limit access to the privileged exec mode instead of enable password. And if I want to limit access to the userexec mode, I can use the comments that you can see. For example, if I want to assign a template password, here are the comments that I can useline VTY stands for "login password space," the password that I can use, and that's it. If I want to assign a console port password, I can use the line console, zero commands, ten login, and password, but man, what was VT four? I couldn't understand something. I didn't understand anything. VTi lines are logical connection points to the router that telnet and SSH use to remotely access your router. For example, if I use VT 4, that means this device can support five sessions at the same time. And here is another great comment that we should always use the service password encryption command This command encrypts all passwords for showrunning configuration even if I use enable password instead of enable secret. As you can see in the example, I'm using enable password and my password is Cisco. But after that, if I use the servicepassword encryption command, then if I check theshow running config command, you can see thatenable password is hashed that's encrypted. So we should use the service password encryption command too. Always. Another Cisco iOS property that we can use is Pen and Motti. This is mostly used for giving a legal notice or something to prevent unauthorised access to a device. You can use the bandit to enter your message here, and that will be the who comment. And as you can see in the picture, that's just a message that doesn't do anything in the configuration that doesn't have anything. But that's just a boring message. Welcome to All connections are monitored and recorded and disconnect immediatelyif you are not in an outdoorsI user. And I made my configuration on my device—I changed the list of interfaces, I set the routing protocol, and blah blah blah. I did something like that, and after all the configurations that I made, if I were to save my configuration file, I should use the copy runStart comment or use the write memory command. With these comments, running configurations are compiled for MV, and they become active even if your device is reloaded. So please don't forget to use the two commands when you make a configuration change and save it. In this section, we will talk about the IP addresses of devices. Network devices must be configured with an IP address and subnet mask. IP addresses have a format like that, and numbers between zero and 255 are used. For instance, 1041, 25 and 7. That's an example of an IP address and subnet mask format that will be examined later. What can I tell you? In this section, you cannot use an iPad address or something like that, blah blah blah, because you can only use the numbers between zero and 255. Okay, so let's take a look at howI can IP address for the computers. I have two options to obtain an IP address for my computer. The first option is to obtain an IP address and DNS address automatically from a device that is using the HCB protocol. The second option that I can use for my computerI can use an IP address for my computer isI use the following IP address in here and Iset my IP address and subnetmask and default gateway manually. And let's take a look at the IP addresses on four routers. I use this command interface to assign an IP address to a router: fast ethernet, blah blah. An IP address is assigned to interfaces on other computers. Okay, I use this command interface, fastinter net in this example; this can change whatever interface I need to configure, and I type the IP address, my IP address, and the subnet method I want to configure on the router. Please keep in mind that IP addresses are assigned to router interfaces and not to physical ports for SWIPs like interfaces. It's assigned to a VLAN. We are going to check what a VLAN is in our next sections, so just keep in mind that you cannot assign an IP address to the physical port for a suede layout to Swedish; you need to assign your IP address under the VLANs. So use the interface for whatever VLAN you need to use, and then you assign the IP address in the same way that you assign your router's IP address: your IP and the subnet that you want to use.

9. IP Addressing

In our next section, we are going to talk about IP addressing (IPV4 and IPV6 addresses) and verifying and troubleshooting IP connectivity. Let's take a look TD IPV four addresses. First, IPV's four addresses are shown in dotted decimal format. As you can see in the picture, we have four portions of the IP address, and portions are separated from themselves with the dot. That's why we use data in decimal format for the IP addresses. But behind the scenes, IP addresses are 32-bit addresses. We are going to make a practical training after this video on the board about these calculations, and I'm going to show you how to calculate these numbers step by step on the board. Let's take a look at the binary-to-decimal conversation. We have two examples, and we have two numbers in here. In example one, I'm going to use this, and for example two, I'm going to use this. These are binary values of the numbers. In binary values I can use just zero orone, but in the decimal values I can usethe numbers from zero to nine, as you know. Okay, let's take a look at the examples. For the first example, I'm writing this number, as you can see, and I'm writing example two, also 100–1101. And let's have our conversation. If I want to convert this binary value to decimal, what I'm doing is writing four, five, six, and seven. And I'm calculating these numbers two to the Power7108: 26645, 3216, eight, four, two, and one. In the last step, I'm multiplying the numbers and adding them together. For example, one is multiplied with 128,this 64 with 122 with zero. And I'm adding these numbers together. And here is the decimal value of this, which is 280. And if I'm not going to convert from decimal to binary, what I'm going to do here is have reverse logic. For example, if I want to convert the225 to decimal, I'm dividing the numbers seriouslyto the true 25 divided by two. And as you know, that quote is 120, and the remainder is And I'm doing this step, and I'm writing the binary number from button to top. As you can see, that's 1100 and one. And let's take a look at the eight. I'm dividing it seriously into two. Eight divided by two is four, and the reminder is zero. Then four divided by two results in two, and a reminder is zero again. Two divided by two, the quotient is one, and the remainder is zero once more, and bound divided by two, the quartentis zero, and the remainder is the boundest time, and I'm writing from button to up once more. All right, let's take a look at the subnet mask. Now, the subnet thing is used to divide the network. and a subnet mask is a bit mask that can be used to separate the bits of the network identifier from the bits of the host identifier. We should use serial ones to represent the submit mask. And we have some exact values that we can use when we represent the submask. I'm going to show you that now. Here are the valid subnet values. We should use zero zero, as I mentioned in our previous slide. I'm sorry. One more moment. And as you can see, I can use a separate one between zeros when I'm writing a subject mask. Okay, all of this can be zero or one, but that shouldn't be a problem. Semiticokay! I cannot separate these guys from each other. Ones are their best friends, and they never live together. If you convert this decimal value—I'm sorry—if you convert this binary value to decimal values, you can get these numbers easily. And if you convert this one, this is going to be 255. For example, you can give it a try. And let's take a look at the Network ID. Network ID is calculated with logic and the IP address and subnet mask. Let's take a look at the final process. But please keep in mind that in our previous sections we have talked about whether the devices are on the same network or not. If devices are on the same network, they should have the same network IDs. If network IDs are the same, I never sent the packet to the default gateway, and I can connect over a switch. For example, this is PC One, this is PC Two, and this is PC Three. Let's say that we have an IP address of 2 and that this is 5, And let's say that we have all the same subnet mask, which means 200 and 205. If I want to calculate the network ID, I need logic, an end-of-IP address, and the Summit Mask, so what does it mean? I'm going to show you a practical training test on the board. So, after this session, you'll see what I mean in here. But please keep in mind that the first host address is calculated by adding a month to the network ID. And here is how we calculate the end process: If the two bits that I'm using with and are zero, or even if I have a zero for the end process, the end result will always be zero. Please keep in mind that the Nth one is when both leads are one; any other way, it's zero only any other way.But if it's only one, my result is only one. And here's how I can set up a dynamic IP address for Host. I'm opening my Internet Protocol version 4 properties on my PC, and I'm choosing to obtain an IP address and DNS server automatically so I can get a dynamic IP configuration from the DHCP host server. And here's how I can create a static IP configuration for the host right now. I'm choosing to use the following IP Address method, and I'm writing my values manually at this time. And here are the IPV four host communication types. We have unicast, multicast, and broadcast, which we have talked about in our previous sections. If I want to send a broadcast, I'm sending my packets to all of them. So how can I make the IPV four units communicate? Let's see that if computer A wants to communicate with computer C, he's choosing the source IP as his own address and the destination IP as the PCC's destination IP, and the packet is only going to be for computer C, not for computer B. If I want to send the multicast to the network that I'm in reserve for, the multicast communication IP addresses are 2240 zero and zero zero 255. I need to send a packet to these IP addresses. So I want to send a MultiQuest to my network. And here are the private IP addresses and IP classes. These private IP addresses are used for local area network communication, and they are not globally routable. That means I cannot use this IP address range on the Internet because they are not globally routable, and we have class A, class B, and class C IP addresses, but plus full addresses are not legacy anymore. And for example, if I'm using class A, I can usethese IP addresses and I just can't use this subnet mask. If I'm using Class C, I can use this range with this subnet mask. This is legacy, and now we're using classless addressing. For example, I'm using this private IP address range, but I can use this subnet mask without any problem. So let's take a look at the variable link subnetmask when subnetting a network to make the most efficient use of all of the bits, which means VLSM, and that's the class list addressing that I talked about. For example, you are using a range in this class, but you are using it and other aspects not in the table of the previous slide. So let's take a look at the IPV for broadcast communication. These PCs have these IP addresses: 110, 121, and 30, and here is the default gateway for them. And network IDs for these PCs are 10, as I told you that.I'm going to show you on the board how I calculate the detailed and broadcast address for this network, which is this one. I'm going to show you again how we calculate this on board. And because of that, the package tested on these iPads is sent to all hosts as a communicate. For example, if a PC sends a broadcast object to my network with the source IP 110 and the destination SD 125, And let's take a look at the original Internet registries. These guys manage the location and registration of IP addresses within a particle region of the network. For example, we have ethnic groups in Africa, we have Erin, we have Lee Nick, and we have Ripe for a really large region. And it's nice to talk about IP version six. As we talked about in our previous sections, IPVfour addresses are above the finish and need willincrease for IP addresses by IoT, as you know. And IPB 6 provides as much address space as you recall; we no longer require net IP addresses. IP version six addresses are shown in hexadecimal format, but they're 128-bit addresses behind the ones in haggida format. You can use zero to nine after the AP CENF. And we can also simplify the IP Version 6 notation. We have two rules about this. The first is a zero suppressionrole strip that removes all leading zeros. If we have a leading zero in my IPVision six address, I can strip this off this.For example, in here, as you can see, I have a leading zero. I have leading zeros in here. So I'm stripping them, and I can write this zero DB eight, and I can write just DB eight instead of zero DB eight. This is the first rule that I can use. And the second thing is the zero compression rule, which replaces the continuous groups of zero with a column column.Please keep in mind that I can make it just one time. As you can see, we have a continuous group of zero, and I'm writing just one column instead of this one. And let's take a look at the IP version six perfect lamp, which is used to identify how many bits of IP version six address are there in total. And as you can see, we have this number 64, which is represented to help identify that the first 64 bits are in the network part. IP version six doesn't use data mass notation. We can just use the XNotation instead of the other one. And in IP version six, we have unit test communication and multicast connection again, but no broadcast communication; instead, we have anycast communication instead of broadcast, which means one to any, as shown in the image. IP version six unicast is the same as IP version four unicast. If computer A wants to send a Unicast message to computer B, that's using the source IP as its own IP address and the destination IP as the computer's CIP version 6 address. And we have some unique address types for IP version six. There are four: global Unicast, link local loopback, unspecified address, unique local, and embedded IPV 4. Let's take a look at the IPV 6-global unique test first. IPv4 unit 6 global unique test address is globally unique. This is analogous to the IPV logic for public addresses. And this address is routable on the Internet too. And here is the other strangeof the IPV six global Unicast. And here's how we can configure this. Please keep in mind that if you're making IP Version 6 configuration, the first thing you should do is use the IP Version 6 UniQuest routing command and make your device ready to make IP Version 6 routing. Then you open the interface that you want to go into with the interval command interface, and then you type the IP address. If you would configure the IP version 4, you would type IP address "blah blah blah" and "blah blah blah." This is the IP address that you use, and this is the subnet mask. But if you're configuring IPV6, you're typing an IPV6 address instead of an IP address. That's it. The rest is the same: the IP address and the subnet mask. We can dynamically configure the IP version's six host-global units in two ways. The first method is to use stateless address auto configuration. The second method is HTTP version six. In the stateless address auto configuration, routers can send the IP address prefix length and default gateway information to the clients. In DHCP version six, the HTTP server sends the IP address prefix link, default DNS server, and domain name information to the client. Let's take a look at the Slack. The router can offer three types of Slack information. The first is "slack only if router sends slack-only message," which means use the information sent by the router only if it offers slack, and the second is "DHCP version 6," which means use the information sent by the router and get the others from the DHCP version 6 server. For example, use the information that I'm sending you—like IP address, prefix length, and gateway—but get your DNS from the DHP version six server. A third method uses only DHCP version 6, and there isn't much to it -- I'm sorry, man, I can't help you -- just use the HCP version 6 server to get all of your information. Let's see an example. For example, the host is saying that, Hey Rother, I need IP version six options Man prefers to receive messages and can provide three types of messages in the first message, such as the only router saying, "Here is your IP address and gateway." in the second method. The router provides your IP address but requests HTTP version 6 to report. DNSN domain name, and here's the last step. router can also say that I'm sorry, ramp. I don't have anything for you; instead, ask DHCP version six about everything, and we can discuss it here. DHCP version six. We can take a look at the DHCP version six options. In this example, the host is saying that the router Six IP version options are required. Yes, use the router's IPNprefix link and inquire about the DNS domain name. The other unique S type that we are using in IP version six is IP version six link local unicast, which provides communication on the same local link. That's a similar logical IP version for private addresses, and this address is assigned a perfect 64. All of this being defined as the block of this block and linking local and cool unique app addresses are also being used for the next top calculation in routing protocols, and interface ID can be generated randomly or by the Eui 64 process. which we're going to examine on the next slide. As you can see, IPV sixlink local unicast has two portions. first portion is the subject space; this is the remaining 54 bits. And in the second portion, we have InterfaceID, and we can calculate the Interface ID randomly or with this Eui process. And let's take a look at the UI 64 process. The first step is to insert Ffee into the middle of the client's electrodes. Let's say that this is my Mac address, and the middle of the Mac address is here. As you can see, this is the middle, and I'm inserting an "f" into the middle of the address. Then I need to reverse the seven bits. For example, if the seventh bit is zero, make it one; if it's one, make it zero and establish the 64-bit device identifier. And I'm going to here, and I'm writing zero zero, and I'm reverting the seventh bit. My 7th bit is zero, but I'm reverting it to one. And as you can see, here is still zero, which represents here, and here represents two. And here is how my device identifies Mihail loopback, unspecified address, unique local, and embedded IP are four address types. Embedded IPV4 aids in the transition to IP version 6; unique local is used for local addressing; unspecified address is used when the device lacks a permanent IP version 6 address; and boot pack is used when a host sends packets to itself. If I want to display the IP version six routing table, I'm using the Show IP version six route command in the router. IP version six routing tables and IPV four routing tables are kept separately. If I want to display this, I'm using the ShowIP Rob command, but if I want to display the IP version six routing table, I need to use the Show IP version six route command. But we have the same logic in the routing table as you can see. As you remember, that means connected, that's local, that's EIGRP, and I also have my networks and I have my desktop. That's the same logic as the IP version for the routing table. And let's take a look at verifying troubleshooting-type connectivity. The easiest method by which I can verify and troubleshoot the IP connectivity is the pin command. For example, if I want to check the reachability between PC One and PC Two, I can use the pink command in PC One, use that pink zero three, and check if I have reachability between PC Two and PC One or not. I can also use the extended Pintwo, which has another feature like that. I can specify how many times I will campaign. ground size or timeout, and blah blah blah. Something like that, and here is the output of the "pink" command, for example. In here, I'm seeing "successful pink" because I'm getting a reply from the remote device, and we are happy as you can see, but if you see an output like this request timeout, That means the response isn't responding to us, and the bad news is that it's time to cry. Request timeout. And we have also traced commands to verify the connectivity. Traceride is used to test the path hop by hop. For example, if I want to test the path from PC-1 to here, I can use from PC-1 to Tracer, then the zero zero one command. This command will check the path hop by hop and tell me if there's a problem on the road or not. Please keep in mind that if I'm using Traceroutes from a PC, I need to use Tracer. But if I want to use Traceroute from a network device such as a switch or router, I need to use the Traceroute command. And Trace Route has more options, as shown by the comment output of Trace Route when tracing this IP address. We can write the domain name or the IP address too, and here is the path that I'm using when I'm trying to reach this IP address, and that means trace complete, which shows you that we have a reachable T and there's no problem except in this scenario. As you can see, I'm going to this IP address here too, but here's the last note that I can go when I'm trying to go to this IP address, and as you can see, it's time to cry. Here is the bad news if I need to troubleshoot that way: I don't need to check the notes that have been made here; I need to take a little bit further off here, and we also have the debug command, which provides real-time troubleshooting about protocols. iOS processes and events, but please keep in mind that you should use debug comments very carefully because debug comments may cause high CPU usage. If you want to stop the debug that you open, you should perform all the commands, and that's your best friend. And for example, if debug IPX is an example user debug command, then debug IP rip means you are debugging the rip message. And we have another great tool that I can use; that's the Terminal Monitor commands, which are used to display log messages when connected via Telnet or SSH to the device. Log messages are displayed by default for just console connections, and if you want to view them in a telnet or SSH session, you need to type Terminal Motor.

10. White Board Practice : Subnetting

Alright, guys, that's the lap time. Again, as I promised to you, I'm going to show you how we calculate the network IDs and how we can find the first and last IP addresses that we can use in a network on the whiteboard right now. All right, I'm going to make you an example. We have an IP address, and we are going to create our subnet mask too. And that's our submask. All right, as you can see, we have our IP address in summary mask right now. And the question is, what is our network ID, and what's the first and last IP address that I can use in this network? All right, guys, let's take a look at how we can accomplish this goal. But first, let me remind you of something. Please remember that when we were talking in the slides, I told you that you needed to logically end your IP address with your subnet mask in order to get the network ID. All right? As you remember from our slides, a logical end is a process. A logical end is simply a situation in which all four bits are one. If we're using both one and one, our logical and resolved answer will be one. In the other scenarios, we are not going to have one. We are going to have to write here. We are going to have zero. All right, let's take a look to my IPLsand subnets now, and I'm going to logically endthem and I'm going to get my network IDfor this IP address while using this san NS. All right, let's take a look at the white port. The last time I was cleaning it, All right, cleaning time. Okay, guys, I'm writing my IPRs now. 1041; 20; and 25. It was like that. All right. As you can see, we have four portions in our IP address. 1st, 2nd, third and fourth portions. As you can see, we are at our IP address. As you can see, our IP address is in decimal format, but actually it's net, okay? That's for providing easy reading. But actually our IP address will be in binary format, which means we just can't use true numbers. They are one and zero. Just okay. As you know, that IP address is 32 bits. We have talked about this in our slides, and you can see that we have four portions, which means each portion is going to be eight bits. All right? Eight bits means 80 or eight ones. Each field is going to be eight bits. Okay? Let's calculate the finer format of these numbers right now. Okay? I'm going to use ones and zeros to calculate the binary format of 1041, 20 and 25. Okay? What I'm going to do is, for simplicity's sake, write the powers of two, which I'm using in calculating the binary format. Oh, until seven. I'm writing this. Okay, why not until seven? My man, come on! We're writing until seven because each portion consists of eight bits. And I'm beginning at zero and I'm going to end with this seven, which means 123-4567-8, as you can see. All right, let's calculate this. Two to the power of zero equals one, two to the power of one equals two. That's four. And I'm writing the right I used the powers of two to calculate the binary value. Okay, let's do a calculation. Now, as you can remember, what I said is that I'm going to use just zero and one. And I need to get these numbers. I need to get ten first. Let's look at how I can get the ten from here. I'm going to use these numbers. Let me be clear here. Do you know how to calculate this anymore? How can I get ten using these numbers together? Okay, I'm going to add them together, or some of them together. and I need to find the ten. Okay. To get ten from here, I can use eight and two. If I add eight to two, that's going to be ten. All right. And I'm making one for the fields that I used to add. Okay, this is going to be one. This is going to be one, and the other portion is going all right, as you can see that eight plus two is ten. And this is the binary format of ten. That's so easy. as you can see. Let's go. I'm writing this. All right, that's my ten. Let me clean up my ten. and I need to get the 41. Now, how do we get the 41 from here? So easy. All right, let's choose 32, and okay, 32 plus 16. This is going to be 48, which is bigger than our number. Alright. which means that I shouldn't use this or this. Okay. How can I get easily to 41? If I use 32, eight, and one, what would it be? It's going to be 41, right? One plus eight plus 32 is 41. Let's write it again. Alright, I'm writing it. That's t again. AI'm cleaning. I need 20 new.Let's take a look at the 20 now. Let's take a look today. What if I make these portions one? Let's calculate twelve, one, four, and that's not enough. If I add this one to the others, the final result will be 31, which is greater than 20. Let's take a look at what happens if I make here zero and disguise it as one. That means, oh, no, this is going to be zero too. I thought that we were calculating 21. Okay, 16, four. What's the result? 20. That's so cool. Okay, I'm going to use zero on the other fields. All right, let's take a look at our end result now. Okay, 25, and that's not going to be this. So that's going to be zero. You can calculate. Okay. You can add this together and check if I'm doing it right or wrong. All right, I'm saying that that's going to be zero. All right, let's delete it. This is the binary format of my IP address. All right, let's take a look at my subnet mask. If you remember, my subnet mask is 252-552-525, five and zero. And I'm saying that I'm going to use 240 bits in my summer mask and 80 bits. Okay. If you add all these numbers to each other, you are going to get two five five, which is the highest number that you can use in the binary format. All right, my subnet buyer format is going to be like mber that And what about the third portion? This is going to be hoozy. Okay. The zero means we have eight bits of zero. All right, I'm cleaning. You do. Okay, this is the time to act right now. I'm logically in my IP and subnet mask, and keep in mind that it'll only be one when it's for both. Okay? If I'm using just one and one, my end result would be one, but in the other scenarios, it's not going to be one. It's going to be zero. I can use just two numbers in the binary format. They are one and zero. I'm ending at zero and one. The end result will be zero. As I said, zero and one second later, zero, one, and one. What's going to be the end result? That's going to be one. Pay attention because that's going to be 1210. All right, I've got my number. Please keep in mind that if I end a number or use a logical end, my bets should have the same outcome. Okay, that's what I got. As you can see, the binary format is ten, which I got in here. Okay, let's take a look at the second portion. That's who won again. And I'm going to write this portion. But if you don't write it directly, you can calculate. You know how to calculate. Okay, the logic behind this is logical and process test.All right, I'm writing 01001. That's the same thing with the 41-binary format. Let's take a look at the last portion. What's going to be the last portion? The last portion is going to be hog-zero. Okay. Because if we need to check, we don't have any ones, we have a whole zero. We only need one bit from the logical end process. And because of that, that's going to be who Zero. All right, I've got my network ID right now, too. This is my network ID. I need to convert this one to the decimal format. Right now, as you can see, I have four portions again. The first portion is ice, ice, ice. You can write the powers of two and calculate the decimal format of this one again, but please keep in mind that you should check. Oh, my God. These are the same values. Okay, as you can see, Please be cautious if you're using your Subnet Mask, or if you're logically terminating your iPad with someone who wants you to get the same bully. Okay, that's ten. and this one is 41. This one is 20. What about the last one? The last one is going to be zero. All right, here is my network ID. Okay, but what I need to show you is the first IP address that I can use in this network, the last IP address that I can use, and the broadcast address. All right, my submit mask is 255-25-5255, and we have a formula for this. The formula is decremented by two. This gives us the total IP address space in this network that I can use for this subnet mask. Okay, so what does M stand for? M is the total zero bits in my Subnet Mask. So in my subnet mask, I have a total of 80 ce that I cPlease keep in mind that IP addresses and Subnet Masks are 32 bits; they are divided into four portions, and each portion has eight bits. So I totally have eight zeros for this scenario. So two to the power eight, and 254 is the end result. That means I can use 254 IP addresses in this network ID with this subnet mask. Pretty cool. So what's the first IP address? The first IP address is "incrementing the network ID by one." Okay, that's the first IP address that we can n this That's the first IP address that we can use. If I can use all 254, my last IP address will be that 254.Right. I'm starting with 1 and finishing with 254. and that's going to be a total of 254 IP addresses. All right. Pretty cool. The last thing I'm going to talk about is the broadcast IP. Broadcast address is to find the broadcast IP address, so I'm incrementing the last IP address. Okay? That means my broadcast will be 2255. This IP address should be used if I want to use broadcast, or if I want to send a packet to everyone in my network with this network ID. That's the broadcast. This one is last one. This is the first iPad I'm using.

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100-490 Questions & Answers
Premium File
60 Questions & Answers
Last Update: May 25, 2024
100-490 Training Course
27 Lectures
100-490 Study Guide
Study Guide
1049 Pages

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What exactly is CCT Routing and Switching Premium File?

The CCT Routing and Switching Premium File has been developed by industry professionals, who have been working with IT certifications for years and have close ties with IT certification vendors and holders - with most recent exam questions and valid answers.

CCT Routing and Switching Premium File is presented in VCE format. VCE (Virtual CertExam) is a file format that realistically simulates CCT Routing and Switching exam environment, allowing for the most convenient exam preparation you can get - in the convenience of your own home or on the go. If you have ever seen IT exam simulations, chances are, they were in the VCE format.

What is VCE?

VCE is a file format associated with Visual CertExam Software. This format and software are widely used for creating tests for IT certifications. To create and open VCE files, you will need to purchase, download and install VCE Exam Simulator on your computer.

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Yes, you can. Look through free VCE files section and download any file you choose absolutely free.

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VCE Exam Simulator can be purchased from its developer, Please note that Exam-Labs does not sell or support this software. Should you have any questions or concerns about using this product, please contact Avanset support team directly.

How are Premium VCE files different from Free VCE files?

Premium VCE files have been developed by industry professionals, who have been working with IT certifications for years and have close ties with IT certification vendors and holders - with most recent exam questions and some insider information.

Free VCE files All files are sent by Exam-labs community members. We encourage everyone who has recently taken an exam and/or has come across some braindumps that have turned out to be true to share this information with the community by creating and sending VCE files. We don't say that these free VCEs sent by our members aren't reliable (experience shows that they are). But you should use your critical thinking as to what you download and memorize.

How long will I receive updates for CCT Routing and Switching Premium VCE File that I purchased?

Free updates are available during 30 days after you purchased Premium VCE file. After 30 days the file will become unavailable.

How can I get the products after purchase?

All products are available for download immediately from your Member's Area. Once you have made the payment, you will be transferred to Member's Area where you can login and download the products you have purchased to your PC or another device.

Will I be able to renew my products when they expire?

Yes, when the 30 days of your product validity are over, you have the option of renewing your expired products with a 30% discount. This can be done in your Member's Area.

Please note that you will not be able to use the product after it has expired if you don't renew it.

How often are the questions updated?

We always try to provide the latest pool of questions, Updates in the questions depend on the changes in actual pool of questions by different vendors. As soon as we know about the change in the exam question pool we try our best to update the products as fast as possible.

What is a Study Guide?

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Any study guide can be opened by an official Acrobat by Adobe or any other reader application you use.

What is a Training Course?

Training Courses we offer on Exam-Labs in video format are created and managed by IT professionals. The foundation of each course are its lectures, which can include videos, slides and text. In addition, authors can add resources and various types of practice activities, as a way to enhance the learning experience of students.

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