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Understanding Core AWS Services
1. Introduction to Amazon Web Services
Hey everyone, and welcome back to the Knowledge Poodle video series. So finally we have reached the stage where we can begin our introduction to Amazon Web Services, or AWS. Now, I'm very sure that most of you have already heard about AWS in some way or another. So let's discuss a very high-level overview of Amazon Web Services. So, AWS is one of the largest cloud service providers in the world right now, and it has more than 50 services. Now, what makes AWS amazing is that it is spread all across the world. So the AWS data centers are actually located in most parts of the world. So let's assume I have an ecommerce website in India. Then I can actually launch it in the data centers, which are available in the Indian region, specifically in Mumbai city. So if I am based in Dubai or Europe, then maybe I can select the Ireland region over here. So if you have data based on Ireland, the Frankfurt region, or if I'm based in Japan, then you have Tokyo. If I'm based in the US, then I actually have tones of data centers available. So this is one of the very nice things about AWS: that it is actually spread across the world, and this actually makes it so if you launch your service within the data center of the Mumbai region, for example, and if your website is serving Indian customers, then the latency that you have reduces tremendously.
And this is one of the important factors in considering a cloud service provider. Now let's talk about Gartner's Magic Quadrant. So, as you may or may not have heard, Gartner has released a magic quadrant for various services such as cloud providers and application monitoring providers. Then you have log monitoring, SI, M, analytic tools, etc. So how this works is that Gartner will divide it into four quadrants. First, leaders. Leaders are like the top notch, the best ones in the industry, followed by Visionaries. So Visionaries is in the second quadrant. Then you have niche players, and then you have challengers. So I'll give you one example. So in one of my organizations that I used to work with, they used to blindly select the tools and services based on Gartner's Magic Quadrant. So if someone would suggest some tools which are part of the niche players, then it would be like strictly no. They would mostly select the leader's related services or tools. So if you see in "Leaders," AWS is one of the top ones that are in the "Leaders" category. The second one is quite far, which is Microsoft, and the third one is Google. As a result, there is no real competition for AWS among cloud service providers. And AWS is really an amazing thing, as you'll know when we start to explore the services and features that are being provided by Amazon Web Services.
As a result, AWS offers a wide range of services for various platforms, such as Compute Storage databases, analytics, encryption deployments, and many more. So I still remember how we used to spend like so many days trying to configure Rabbit MQ with a high-availability configuration, and it used to be a real pain. With AWS SQL Service all I have to do is have to click a few buttons and I have message broker ready for me without really have to worry about anything related to it going down or itis getting slow or so many other factors. And as we go ahead, we'll understand the true power of AWS services. And AWS services are really a masterstroke. Let me give you a real worst scenario. Many years ago, or even now, organisations would spend tens of thousands of dollars to build a storage solution that would be used for backup or archiving. Now, this definitely used to take significant time, as well as an investment. So organisations might have to hire storage administrators, or they would have to go through consultants who would design a storage solution for them. But with AWS Three, with just the click of an upload button, you get 99.9% durability in less than a minute of work. So you see the first step here and the second step here. There is such a big difference between these two. And I'll give you one of the examples of my friend who works as a storage administrator at one of the best companies in the world, and he is trying to switch to the AWS Solutions Architect profile. Now, because he claims that the number of jobs related to storage has significantly decreased as more and more organisations move their backups and archives to the cloud, Because of the high demand and amazing services that AWS has to offer, people from storage areas have significantly begun to do AWS-related certifications. Let me actually show you this particular aspect of how easy it is to do that. So I'll just go to S-3 service. Don't worry, we'll learn all of this. And I'll just go to a sample bucket; I'll click on upload; I'll add a file; let me just add an OpenVPN screenshot file over here, just for example.
And all I have to do is click on "upload," and if you see it, it is uploading the file. So once it gets uploaded, then AWS S guarantees that it will have a certain durability factor. Now again, this comes with a certain price, which is minimal. However, if you have terabytes of data,then you can always have various otheroptions which might decrease the durability, butthe pricing factor will also decrease. So a lot of flexibility there willbe discussing this in the subsequent sections. Now, the "pay as you go" model is one of the revolutionary ones that really made AWS a big player in the cloud service provider industry. Now, this is really amazing because if I'm using a server for 2 hours, then I should pay for only 2 hours. Why should I pay for a week, or why should I pay for a month? And this is the fundamental nature of AWS services. So you talk about services like ECTwo or SQS or CloudFront. All of them are pay-as-you-go as you go model.You don't really have to make an investment for a month in order to use those services. Now, this model becomes really terrific, especially for the AWS Marketplace support. Now, I really like this third point, because I'll give you one example. I wanted to evaluate one service. Let's assume Trend Micro and Deep Security.
Now, what happens in the pay-as-you-go model is that even if it is a paid product like NGINX Plus or TrendMicro, I don't really have to buy their licenses. I pay them on an hourly basis. So let me just show you that. Let me go to the AWS Marketplace. And generally, the AWS Marketplace is where you have a lot of solutions like Splunk, Brent Micro, and Jennifer. And all of those solutions—I would say most of those solutions—work on the per AR base model. So if I just do Trend Micro Deep Security, let me just open this up, and if you look into the pricing related data, it is charging on a per-hour basis. So $0.1 per hour for a micro or smaller medium instance, and $3 per hour for a large instance. So even for the paid or commercial offering, I don't really have to buy any licenses. If I just want to evaluate it for a day, then I can easily pay for it for say, 24 hours, and I can evaluate the entire product. Consider another example. NGINX plus engine X Plus alsohas models based on hourly. So you have the software cost on an hourly basis. So zero points are $34 per hour. Then if you go down, you might find much cheaper ones, like $0.8 per hour. So essentially, what we are doing is, instead of buying the product on an annual basis, we are just doing it on an hourly basis. And this is something that makes AWS really amazing because not only are AWS services being charged on the pay-as-you-go model, but the software, the commercial offerings that were being offered in the AWS marketplace, were even then offered on the early or pay-as-you-go model. So this is something that makes AWS really great. Now, definitely, there are so many things that we can speak about that make AWS really amazing. cloud service provider. But I just don't want to include all the theory right away in the introductory lecture. As soon as we go into the other aspects, we will be covering features, and we will be covering the practical scenario, which will give you insights into why AWS is one of the complete cloud service providers, which is the current situation.
2. AWS Global Infrastructure
Hey everyone, and welcome back to the Knowledge Portal video series. So today we are going to cover a very important topic called "AWS Global Infrastructure." Now, the reason why it is important is because the understanding of this particular section will help us design a fault-tolerant and highly available system in our infrastructure. So let's begin. Now, in the previous lecture, we had already discussed what a data centre is. So again, just to revise, a typical data centre can contain thousands of servers. It might contain four or 50 servers, too. Now, the problem is, since all of these servers are in one location, what happens if a data centre goes down? So if they have four or 50 servers, it might be that they also have around 1000 clients as a minimum. So what will happen if the entire data centre goes down? Then? Essentially, all the clients who have put their data in this data center will have that data unavailable for a specific amount of time while the data centre is down. So we have a data centre over here, and this data centre went down. So the data that is present in this location will be unavailable for that particular instant of time. Now the question is, how do we overcome this particular scenario? And the answer is through availability zones.
Now AWS data centres are organised into availability zones. So this is the availability zone. And within this availability zone, there are multiple data centers. If you can see Now, these multiple data centres are being interconnected with each other, and they are ideally in a similar location. Now let's talk about this Availability Zone in detail. So again, one availability zone can contain multiple data centers. And how things work is—let me give you an example of a hard disc drive that is attached to an EC-2 server. So, that is called EBS. So what happens in EBS because the data within the hard disc drive is very important? What happens is that the data is replicated across the data centre in the availability zone. So if you have launched a server with ten GB of hard disc space, then that customer data is replicated across multiple data centers. So even if the first data centre goes down, then you always have other data centres from which the customer data can be recovered instantly. And this is the basic concept of availability zones. Now, each availability zone is designed as an independent failure zone. So what do I mean by this? So let's assume this is an availability zone. This is the availability zone. And this is the availability zone. So you have easy one Iwould refer Availability Zone as Easy. So you have an easy year, an easy two years, and an easy three years. Now, if you'll notice, the availability zones are physically separated. So each availability zone is physically separated. However, they are interconnected with high-speed private lines.
Now, each of these availability zones can contain multiple data centers. As we already discussed here, this is an availability zone, and each availability zone can contain multiple data centers. Thus, if there are three Availability Zoneshere, each of the Availability Zone willhave multiple data centres inside it. So this is just the example diagram that I have shown in order for us to understand what an availability zone is. Now, one other important thing to remember is that each availability zone is located at a lower-risk location. So, as you can see, India is surrounded by sea. So this side is the Indian Ocean. This side is the Bay of Bengal. So you don't really have a datacenter at the location where there are chances of flooding or disaster. So those concerns are put into mind, and whenever the data centres and availability zones are designed, they are designed in such a way that the chances of disaster striking are minimal. This is the concept of availability zones. Now, we'll cover one more concept called AWS regions. So in the availability zone in the previous diagram, we saw that there are three availability zones over here, and one region contains multiple availability zones. so there can be multiple regions over here. So you have a region of the US, you have a region of Singapore, you have a region of Japan, which is Tokyo, you have a region of Ireland, et cetera. So one region can contain multiple AvailabilityZones, and each region is isolated. As you can see, your availability zones are linked to one another. A region consists of a specific Availability Zone. However, the region by itself is isolated from other regions. There are no private links that are associated with a region. So we looked into the concept of availability zones. We looked into the concept of region. So let me just open up the AWS console so that we can understand the practical aspect of this. So this is the AWS account. Let me go to the easy-to-service to service.
Now, if you see over here, all of these are regions. So you have US East region. You have US East region. So you have North Virginia. Oyo, north California Then you have Ireland; you have Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, and Mumbai. So all of these are regions. And within each region, there can be multiple availability zones. So, if you see something over here, let's head back down to the Mumbai area. AWS will show you the Availability Zone status. So there are two availability zones over here, which are AP South One A and AP South One B. Okay? So one region can have multiple availability zones. Now, let me show you one interesting thing, which I sometimes refer to as a partiality. Let's open the North Virginia region. And if you see over here the availability zone status, you have us in East One A. The North Virginia region has six availability zones, and each availability zone has multiple data centers. So if you see there are many servers available in the North Virginia region, However, I hope the Mumbai region will also have a lot of availability zones soon. Anyways, so we looked into regions, and we looked into availability zones. Now, an important part to remember is that whenever you design a website, you have to take into account where your visitors will come from. Now, if I am designing an e-commerce website, then it is important for me to understand that most of the visitors will come from India only. And this is why I should be selecting the Mumbai region for the lowest latency. Otherwise, if not Mumbai, then I can select the nearby region, which is Singapore. So this is one of the important aspects of designing a website. So coming back to the PowerPoint presentation, let me also share with you one important insight.
Now, if you want to have a highly available application, let's assume the application has three servers, and if all three servers are in a single availability zone, the problem that will happen is if this availability zone goes down due to some reason, maybe a manmade or natural disaster, then your entire application will go down. As a result, the ideal way to design a highly available system is for a single application to have three servers. So what you will do is host one server in Easy, one in Availability Zone 1, a second server in Availability Zone 2, and a third server in Availability Zone 3. So even if two availability zones go down, you still have one server in Availability Zone Three, which will continue to serve your traffic. So designing and understanding the concept of availability zones and thus designing your infrastructure to be highly available and fault-tolerant is very important. And we will be looking into this in much more detail in those individual sections. Just for an overview, AWS currently operates in 16 regions across the world with 44 availability zones. So these are the regions that you will find You have Oregon, you have California, you have the Golf Club, you have North Virginia, you have Sao Paulo, and various other locations. So this is the global outreach of AWS. Right now, AWS has a lot of new regions that are coming up. Perhaps by next year, there will be more regions to choose from. So I hope you got theconcept of Availability Zone region. And in the next lecture, we will continue to explore more about the AWS architecture. I hope this has been useful for you, and I look forward to seeing you in the next lecture.
3. Setting up Labs
Hey everyone and welcome back to the Knowledge Pool video series. So before we begin with our awesome course, the first thing, which is like a prerequisite, is to set up our own labs since this is a table-specific course. And as you might have expected, the very first thing that is expected from all of us is to have an AWS account. Only after we have an AWS account can we go ahead and begin the course. So just to revise, AWS provides a free tyre account, and this free tyre account allows us to use various AWS services under a specific limited usage policy for free for up to one year. So whatever practical’s that we will be doing, we'll be doing under the free tire. Even I'll be using a free tire. And whatever things we do, we'll make sure that most of them are within the limit. This is the URL "free," where you can get free tire information.
So there are various services that Amazon offers for free, like EC2, which is 750 hours per month. You have quick site of one GB, you have Amazon s three storage of up to five GB. You have Lambda. And if you go to various other tabs, you will get more information related to various services and free tyre usage. So whenever you experiment things in AWS, make sure that you fall under this free Tire, otherwise you will have to pay for the additional amount. Perfect. So now that we know about Free Tire, what we can do is go ahead and click on Create a Free Account. Let me actually open up the new tab so that it does not work with our existing cookies. So let me click on "Create a Free Account." Perfect. So now you see it asking for various credentials. It didn't work before because I already had an account, and we'll look into how we can create for demonstration purposes. So the first thing that we need to do is put in our email address, password, and whatever account name we would like to give. Let me put some random name at "Kplabsin I don't really have an email address; however, I won't be registering now.
So I'll just show you the process of how to do it. I'll mark it as a KP lapse. I'll click on "continue." The next thing that you need to do is select the account type, whether it's a professional one or a personal one. Since we are using this for training, we'll be using the personal one. So once you click on Personal and you create the account and you click on Continue, the next thing that will be expected of you is to enter the billing-related data. So you'll have to enter the debit card or credit card information. So from what I have seen, a debit card generally does not work. a lot of times.
So I prefer to put the credit card in. So if you have a credit card, you can try it out, and if you do not have a credit card, then a debit card is something that you have to work around with. So once your account is created, you will get an email saying something similar to this: "Your AWS account is ready." Get started now. So you can get started by clicking on the AWS Management Console, and when you click on AWS Management Console, it will basically log you in. So let me show you what I mean by that. So when you type "AWS Management Console" in Google, it will actually redirect you to the page. So it will redirect you to the username and password page. So you put your email address over here as a username, and the password will be the one that you had set during the sign-up screen. So once you are signed up, we can then go ahead and work with our practical apps. If you're ready, go ahead and sign up for Free Tire, and we can begin with the next lecture. Thanks for watching.
4. Multi-Factor Authentication
Hey everyone and welcome back. Now in today's video, we will look into how we can set up multifactor authentication with an AWS account. So in order to do that, we will quickly log into the AWS console. Now one of the simple way if you do not have the link is you can just do a Google on AWS management console and the first link that generally occurs AWS Amazon comconsol and you can do a sign in to the console. Now, once you come back to the login page, you will need to feed in your password and then click on "sign in." Now, if you notice, whenever we click "sign in," it will automatically sign us in. Now, although this might seem simple, this has a security risk because if someone gets to know your password as well as your username, they will also be able to log into your AWS account. And since your AWS account is connected to your debit card or even credit card, you will lose money if they or an attacker launch a lot of instances and it has happened.
I recall one of my friends, who used to be a colleague in the organizations with which I worked, accidentally posting his AWS access secret keys on GitHub, and the next day discovering that he had a bill for more than $2,000! Now that is a risk because if your credentials are compromised, you will face a heavy bill. So this is the reason why it is important to have multi-factor authentication for your AWS account. So if you go to my security credentials, let's go there. So it is giving you a warning, saying that your root account should ideally never be used, primarily because you cannot restrict the permission of the root account. Anyone who has logged into the root account will have full access to all the AWS resources that are part of it, and hence, AWS is saying that you should go with the AWS identity account users. So, for the time being, we'll stick with the security credentials, which include a Multi-factor authentication tab. Now if you click on this tab, it is giving you an option for activating the MFA. Let's click here, where there are various options. One is virtual, one is utter, and the second is another hardware MFA device that you might have. Now we'll select virtual MFA because it becomes simpler for our demo purposes. Now if you click on continue basically itwill give a QR code to scan. Now, if you click on "show QR code," this is the QR code that you will have to scan from the device. Now there are various apps which are available from which you can scan this QR code. One of the famous ones that I use extensively is the authenticator app within the browser. And you also have the Google Authenticator app, which is available in the Android as well as the iOS marketplace. So, let's look into some of those. So if you just type Authenticator and let's say if you are using Chrome, then there will be first, if you look within the Chrome store, you will have an Authenticator app here. So this is the Authenticator app. Now I have a similar app installed for my Firefox browser.
Now even for Android devices, if you just type "Google Authenticator Android," you will see that within the Play Store, you will see a Google Authenticator app. And you can go ahead and download this app on your phone, from which you can scan it. So once you have your app installed, what you need to do is click here. You have to click on Edit, and there is a plus sign here. Just click on plus sign. Now there are two options. One is scan QR code and second is manual entry. So if you scan a QR code, you'll have to scan it here. And for manual entry, you need to put the secret key that you see over here. Let's try the manual entry for the time being. Or let's do one thing: let's scan a QR code. Because putting so much string on a mobile phone is something you might not do. So let's do a scan QR code. I click on Edit, and I'll do a plus. Let's do a scan. And now you have to scan the entire UR code, which is present over here. So once you have scanned this, you will get an option saying that a new MFA device has been added. And once you have done this, you have to put the two consecutive codes that you see over here. One is the 46130 four. I’ll paste it here. And I'll paste the second code that usually appears after a few seconds here, and I'll do an Asian MFA. Perfect. Now it says that the virtual MFA has been assigned. You can close.
So now, if you sign out and sign in, let's look into how exactly it might work. So now if I do a sign-in this time, it will ask for an MFA code. So even though an attacker might already have your username, he might have your password, but if he does not have the MFA code, he'll not be able to login. So let's copy this MFA code. We'll pay for it here. And once you submit, it will verify. And if your code is right, then you'll be able to login. This is one of the very important steps that you should be taking for your root account as well as for all the other users that you have within your console. So this is it. In this video, I hope this has been informative for you. And I'll really encourage every one of you to set up your MFA. There are a lot of instances of the root account getting compromised or IAM users getting compromised. So having a MFA for all of your AWS accounts is one of the good security features. So that's about it. I hope this has been informative for you, and I look forward to seeing your next video.
5. Creating our first IAM user
Hey everyone and welcome back. Now in today's video, we look into how we can create an I’m user, and henceforth we will be doing all the activity through the I’m user so that we do not really have to log in to the root user account. Now, typically, if you go to my security credentials, whenever you log in through a root account, you would see that there is a warning message that always pops up saying that the account credentials provide unlimited access to your AWS resource. And as an AWS best practice, they recommend that you make use of an AWS identity and Access Management user account. The issue with a root account is that you cannot limit its privileges.
So if an attacker gets access to your root account, he can do all the things within your AWS account that are possible. However, if someone gains access to your IM user's account, you can immediately restrict or block the attacker's access there. The same cannot be said for the root account, which is why, when you go to a financial institution, they typically set an alarm so that whenever a root user logs in, you receive an email as well as an SMS stating that there is a security alert that a root user has logged in. This is because it is best practice that a root user should never be able to log in unless and until it is required. Perfect. So let's look into how we can create the I’m user. similar to what the security suggestion was saying here. So if you go to Services and just go to I’m, we'll go to Users. So currently, as you can see, I have a lot of users, which were created for various demos throughout the other video courses that we have. But let's go ahead and let's create a new user by clicking on the Add user button. Now, within the Add User button, let's give it a name. I'll say Zeal hyphen demo, and you can say what access type you want. We'll select the AWS Management Console access because this user, instead of logging in through root, will be logging in through the I’m user on the AWS management console.
Now the console password either you can select as auto generated in case it is auto generated. Once the user logs in, he'll be asked to change the password. For the time being, if you select the require password reset option here, I'll choose a custom password, deselect this option, and click Next permission. Now, within the permission, you need to attach the relevant policies that are applicable for this user. I'll give the administrator access, and you can do a Next. You can do a review and then go ahead and create a ext. You can do one important part to remember is that once you have your user created, he needs to sign in with a link that is displayed over here. So let's do a copy on this link. And from a new browser, I'll simply paste this link into the URL bar. So once you paste this, you'll see that the account ID gets auto filled. So, this is the account ID where the user was created. You have to give the IAM username, which you can find here, which is the Zeal demo that we had created. So I say "ZEEL demo" and just give the password as well. And we can do a sign-in. Perfect. So now my user has signed in. Now one important part to remember is that again this user, which is the imp user, does not have an MFA enabled. That means any attacker who gets access to the password of my user will be able to do all the aspects listed in my eight because my user here has full permission. So basically, what we need to do is set the MFA for this user as well. So in order to do that, let's go back to the IAM service. I'll say IAM, we'll go to users, and we'll go to the ZEEL hype and demo user. Now, within this, there is a tab for security credentials. We'll click here and it says that assign MFA device is none.
So you have to click on Manage, and you can select any device. This is very similar to the root MFA that we set. I'll select a virtual MFA. I'll continue. It will ask you for the QR code as well as the secret key for the root account. We had already seen how the QR code scanning would work. So this time we'll do a show with a secret key. So I'll copy the secret key, and since I do not have the Authenticator app within this browser, I'll go back to my Firefox and, within the Authenticator app, I'll click on Edit. I'll add a new app. This time I'll do a manual entry. And you have to put the secret over here, which I've retrieved. And the account name is, let's say, AWS Zeal demo. And you can click on "Okay." So now, if you click on Show all entries, it will basically give you the QR code. Let's copy the first one and I'll paste it here. Now again, you need the second code as well. So I'll open it up once again, I'll copy the second code, and I'll paste it here. Once you have both the MFA code and the MFA assigned to your user, So in order to quickly verify whether everything is working, I'll just copy this sign-in link. I'll do a sign out, and this time, let me paste the sign in link. Once again. I'll put Zeal—hyphen demo—and the relevant password.
And now it is asking for multi-factor authentication. I'll go to the Authenticator app, let it expire so this is a new code that's been generated, and I'll submit the MFA code. So once you submit the MFA code, you will be able to log in once again. Now the reason why your IMU user is basically preferred is because, let's assume, this zip demo account gets compromised. Then what I can do is restrict the permission of that user. So if I go to the Silken demo, let's assume that the Zeal hyphen demo got compromised. So all that I need to do is log in through the root account, and I can remove this specific administrator access from this ZL hyphen demo user. So even though the attacker has logged in through this im user, he will not be able to do anything because there are no permissions attached to the im user. So let's verify. So let's go to it this time. And now you see everything giving you an error saying that you are not authorized to perform the operations. So once you remove the permissions, everything gets blocked. And this is the reason why it is actually recommended that everything should be in identity and access management. If your root user is compromised, you won't be able to do much because the root user has unlimited permissions. So this is one important part to remember. So with this, we'll conclude this video. So I hope this has been informative for you, and I'll really encourage whatever activity you perform afterwards to be through the amuser and not through the root user.
6. Setting up MobaXterm
Hey guys, and welcome back. So as part of our lab setup, we will be installing a few tools that we will be using throughout our course. So one of the first tools that we will be using is called the mobile external. So this is a very nice and sleek SSH client. So we can run SSH-related commands or we can connect to a server via SSH. So this is something that we'll be using throughout our course lab.So just click on "Get mobile external" now, and there are two editions: one is the home edition, and one is the professional edition. For our case, we'll be using the Home Edition, and within the Home Edition, there are two other editions. You have the portable, and you have the installer.
So you can select any one of them for our purpose; I have downloaded both of them and we'll be using the installer edition. So you'll see the type is "compressed file." I have already downloaded it and it is of type zip. So there are two files within the zip package. One is the installer, and the second is the DAD package. So for our case, I have extracted both of them to my desktop, and we'll double-click on the installer, and I'll click on Run. So let's install this. This is quite simple. Perfect. So we have installed our mobile external clients. So you see, I have a nice shortcut on my desktop. I'll just click over here and click on "Start Local Terminal." And now you see that I have my local terminal up and running. So you can type your Linux commands over here and it will actually work. So, what I would want to show you is that there are certain commands that we will be using. The first is Telnet. So this is one important command. Just type telnet and verify if it is present. The second is curl, and by default curl is also present. So I'll just do a curl on, say, Dexter. Kplabson. Let's confirm that curl appears to be working, and then let's telnet into Dexter Kplabs on port 80, which also appears to be working. So these are the two important commands that we will use, and we will undoubtedly use the SSH command to connect to our remote servers. So this is it for this lecture, a very short one. Go ahead and set up your mobile device, and I look forward to seeing you in the next lecture.
7. Launcing First EC2 Instance
Hey everyone and welcome back. I really hope that you have signed up for your AWS account. So once you have signed up, you will basically get an email stating that your AWS account is ready. And this email will have the link for the AWS Management Console, through which you will be able to sign in through your AWS account. So in case you have deleted the email, you can simply type AWS Management Console Login in your browser, and it will basically take you to the page where you can click on Sign in to the console to login.
So once you have clicked on "Sign In," you will basically have to put in your username and password. So I'll quickly put in my test AWS account credentials, and once you have clicked on Sign In, it will basically redirect you to your AWS account. Now one thing that you will see is that there are a lot of regions, and you can create your own servers or you can create your AWS resources in the region that is closest to your customers, basically. So for our lectures, let me actually select Oregon. I'll be selecting Oregon for testing. However, you can use any region. Do remember that generally whatever new services thatAWS launch, they tend to launch it inthe North Virginia region and post that theymigrated to various other regions. So you can select North Virginia, and everything would actually remain the same. So, in today's video, we'll be setting up our first AWS server. So in order to do that, you'll have to go to the EC 2. So in order to do that, you can either type EC 2 from here or you can go to Services and click on EC 2.
So this is the EC 2 dashboard. What we'll do is click on instances. On the left-hand tab, you have instances; you can click over here, and basically, instances are servers in AWS. AWS basically refers to them as "easy two instances." If you go outside of AWS, like in the datacenter, they are generally referred to as servers or virtual servers. So the first thing that we do before launching our first server is to create a keypad. So I'll go to the keypad step, and I'll click on Create a keypad. I'll name this Kplan's Login. So you can name it anything that you intend to. I'll just name it this, and I'll click on Create. So once you click on "Create," you will see that the key will automatically get downloaded. So basically, this is the private key, and you would need this private key to log into the EC-2 instance. So this is like the secret password to login to the ECTwo instances or to the server that you create in AWS. Now with this key downloaded, we can go ahead and create our first EC2 instance. So I'll click on "Launch Instance," and within the first tab, basically you have various choices related to the operating system that you want. So you have Amazon Linux, you have Red Hat, and you have UBOLT. You even have Windows. So we'd be selecting the Amazon Linux one. So I'll go ahead and select Amazon Linux. Now the next tab is the instance type, like how much CPU and how much RAM do you need? So only one type comes under "free tire," which is two micro," and we will be selecting this. Do note that if you do not select two micro instances and if you decide to select another instance type, you will be charged. So it's better to try and stay under the free tyre so that we do not really have to pay. So next thing I'll click on is "Configure Instance Detail," which is the basic instance detail that would be needed anyway. We'll just ignore this thing for now and we'll click on "Add Storage." Anyways, we'll be discussing these sections in the relevant sections. For the time being, we'll just use the defaults. The next thing is to add storage. So this is where you can select how much hard disc capacity you need. So eight GB is the default; I'll just leave it as the default. I'll click on "next." I'll click on "next." So this is where the security group configuration needs to be done. So let me do the security group configuration. KP lapse demon login, I'll say. Again, you can name it anything that you need. I just use this as a security group name. Now, within this, I have an SSHON 22 for all that is allowed. So, basically, everyone is indicated. So everyone will be able to connect on port 22, which is basically for SSH, which is generally used for logging in to the Linux server. So with this, I'll go ahead and click on Review and Launch, and I'll select Launch. And the last thing that you have to do is to click on the relevant keypad. So this is the keypad that we have created.
So this is basically the key from which you will be logging into the EC2 instance. So, since we've already downloaded this keypad, the private key associated with it will go ahead and select it and click on Launch instance. So this is the instance ID that AWS has shown. I'll click on the instance ID, and basically, the instance state is pending. As a result, the instance takes some time to launch. So let's just wait for a moment for the instance state to change from pending to running. So now the EC2 instance state has been changed to "running," which basically means we can go ahead and connect with this EC2 instance. Now if you see over here within the IP address section, there are two IP addresses. One is the public IP, and the second is the private IP. A private IP is something that you will not be able to connect to directly. You would need a virtual private network for that, so for the time being we will be using our public IP to connect to the EC2 instance, so what I'll do is I'll quickly open up our mobile external, and I'll clickon Start a local terminal. It is important to note that if you are using Mac or Linux, you do not need this software because those operating systems already include the SSH client. So let's do one thing. Let me quickly zoom in so that it will become much more visible to all of us. So the first thing that we'll do is quickly verify the connectivity from our local to that specific EC2 instance, so let me go here and I'll copy this IP address. I'll go to the mobile extension, I'll page the IP address, and I'll put 22; if you see connected, this basically means that your connectivity is established.
Now in order to escape telnet, I've seen a lot of people really struggle, so in order to escape telnet, basically, you will have to press control and then you have to press a button that has this icon, which I hope you will find in the keyboard. So first you have to press control, then you have to press a button that has this specific icon, so I'll press this and you will be out of telnet, and I'll go ahead and click on Quit. So this is something that you can do to escape tennis; if you're not able to, you can just close the terminal and relaunch it in a newer tab anyway. So now that we have seen that the connectivity is established, I'll go ahead and connect to the easy instance. In order to connect to a Linux server, you basically make use of the SSH protocol SSH protocol generally works on port 22, and this is the reason why we wanted to check the connectivity to the instance with port 22. Now, the default username for Amazon Linux is easy to remember, and then we have to add the IP address of the server, which is 542-1829 Two, let's try to connect in this manner, and you'll see it says permission denied publickey, so I hope you remember that at the beginning of the lecture we downloaded one key, and you'll need that key to login to this specific EC2 instance, so I have the key, which is basically downloaded in my downloads folder, so here's what I'll do. I'll copy this key and save it to Desktop, so this is the key that I saved to Desktop; now, once I've done that, I'll go to my Desktop; in order to do that, you can go to Desktop, and this is where you'll find your key. So, as you will see, this is the key. Now you will have to change the permissions on this specific key. Let's call it six 40 kplab and a demo. All right, so once you have changed your permission, you are in a good position to log into the EC-2 instance. So I'll go ahead and run the same command. And now, within this, I'll have to pass on the key. So I have to select the I option, and I have to specify the path where my key is stored, which is DesktopLabs, Demo, login PM. So this is the thing: we are passing this specific key while logging in to the EC2 instance. So, once I press Enter, you will see that I am automatically logged in to the EC Two instance.
Now, so let me go to the root account, and I'll just clear the screen with the clear he root account,So this is our first EC2 instance, which was created. So let's do an interesting thing before we conclude this lecture. Let me download a package called NGINX so you can download it with Yamz and install NGINX. Once you click on Enter, it will automatically download this specific software. So, this is a web server similar to Apache, which I will not discuss in detail right now. About this, I just wanted to give you a quick overview. So, once this package is downloaded, the next thing you need to do is quickly check the status to see whether NGINX is stopped or NGINX is running. So now it says "enginex" is stopped. I'll go ahead and start my engineering. Perfect. So now your engineer has started. Now, if you quickly want to see which port NGINX is running, you can run the netchat Ntlb command. And it basically states that if you see NGINX listening, state is listening. Where are they listening? It is listening on port 80. Similarly, our SSH service is also in listen mode and is listening on port 22. Now, if you remember, in order to check the connectivity, we had run a telnet command. Now we'll use the same command to see if we can connect to port 80, where our Engineer services are running. So I'll open up the new tab, I'll do atenant, let me get the public IP again, paste the public IP, and I'll put port 80 over here. And, in general, it does not appear to be connected.
Instead, it is trying to connect. So, this will basically time out. Now, in order to fix this, we need to figure out why it is not being able to connect because the firewall is not allowing it. So within the EC two instances under the security group, we have created the Kpop demo login security group. And if I click on View inbound rules, the firewall, which is Security Group, is basically the name of the firewall in terms of AWS conventions. So this security group is only allowing access on port 22. It is not allowing access to any other port. So if we want to connect, we'll have to give one more access. I'll go to Edit, type arule, and then put 80 in there. It will automatically fill in. If it does not, you can just type it in, and I'll say, Web server here for easy understanding," and I will click on within this So once you have allowed port AT, we can again try and connect through teletext. So I'll run the same command again, and now you can see I am able to successfully connect to my web server. So now what we can do is go to the EC2 instance, and if I quickly put the IP over here, you will see that it is showing welcome to NGINX on Amazon Linux. So this is the basic Web server page. Now you can even modify this specific page with the custom message that you intend to send.
So basically, within this page, it is actually showing where this page comes from, which is usershareenginex. So what I'll do is go to that part with the CD command and CD User Share engineix, and if I doLS over here, there are multiple files and this specific page, which has been rendered from the index HTML file. So if I quickly do a nano and index HTML, these are all the contents of this file. So let me do one thing. I'll use the echo command to remove all of the contents; I'll put echo, index HTML. So now this is a blank file, and let's put a custom message over here. I'll say hello from Zill—welcome to my website. I'll go ahead and say that if you're using Nano, in order to save certain changes, you have to press CTRL X. So, as you can see, in order to put Control, you must press X. And then it will basically ask you whether you want to save the changes or not. Since I want to save the changes, I'll press Y and then I'll press Enter, and your changes will be saved. So, once the changes are saved, I'll return to my browser, refresh, and you'll see that it now displays my own custom message. So this is basically how you can configure your own website. So if you have a detailed HTML/CSS file, you can put it over here. So anyways, this is not that relevant to our course, but I just wanted to give you an overview so that you will have a much more clear understanding. So this is it about today's video. I hope this video has been quite comprehensive and gives you a broad overview related to how you can launch the server and how you can add a security group. We'll go over this again in future videos, but I hope this video was informative for you. As always, try it out in your AWS account to get a better understanding. So this is it for today's video. I hope this has been informative for you, and I look forward to seeing you in the next video.
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