HashiCorp Certified: Terraform Associate Topic: Exam Preparation Section Part 2
December 20, 2022

4. Important Pointers for Exams – Part 03

Hey everyone, and welcome back. Now in today’s video, we’ll be discussing the third part of the important points for the TerraForm certification. Now, the first important thing of which you need to be aware is associated with the Terraform function. So you should know what Terraform functions are. You should be able to use the basic TerraForm function. So for the associate certification, you will not be asked any complicated things. However, if you simply go through the functions video in the course and understand it, you will be fine.

So be aware of functions like element and lookup before you sit for the course. The next important point is associated with count and count index. So you should be aware of both the necessity of the count parameter as well as the necessity of why the count dot index is important. So, we already know count allows us to have multiple resources of the same type. So it is more of a loop that you can achieve. Count dot index, on the other hand, loops into the count parameter and increments the count dot index value accordingly. The next type of question you can expect to see in the exams is to read through the code and identify the problem. So, if you look into this TerraForm code over here, the question will state that you should go through the code and see what needs to be removed as part of the TerraForm best practice.

So straight away, it is very simple. We are hard-coded over here if you go through the code access and secret. So this is something that does not need to be there. As far as the TerraForm best practice is concerned, the next important thing of which you need to be aware is the TerraForm lock. So, if the back end supports it, TerraForm will lock your state file for all operations that could write a specific state. This is significant because it may describe a particular state. If you want to override that and use a Terraform force-unlock command to manually unlock the state, the next important pointer to remember is the difference between the desired state and the current state. And you can expect questions based on that. So let’s take a simple question that is based on a use case.

So, let’s say that you have created an EC2 instance and someone has modified it manually. What will happen if you do the TerraForm plan yet again? So, when you discuss the modification, let’s take an example of two types of modification. First, someone has changed the instance type from t2 micro to t2 large. So let’s say that you have a Terraform configuration through which you have created a C2 instance based on t2 micro, but someone changed it manually to t2 large. Second, someone has terminated the EC-2 instance, so in such cases, if both operations are done manually, what will happen next time when you do a telephone application? So in the first case, Terraform’s current state will be T 2 large, and the desired state is T 2 micro. So TerraForm will change the instance type back to T-2 micro. And in the same way for the second use case, if someone has terminated the EC2 instance, next time when you do a telephone application, TerraForm will go ahead and create a new EC2 instance.

The next important pointer is associated with a resource block. So remember that each resource block describes one or more infrastructure objects. It can be easy to instance Sri, bucket, or any other component here. Now one important part of this resource block is the second pointer over here. So a resource block declares a resource of a given type. So in this case, a resource from an AWS underscore instance is used. However, the resource of a given type is also associated with a given local name. So in here, the local name is “web.” So in exams, they can give you a resource block similar to this. And they’ll ask you: What is the name associated with the resource block? So you should know that the name associated with the resource block is where the next important point is associated with a sentinel. Sentinel is thus an embedded policy in the form of a code framework that is integrated with the Hashioki enterprise products.

So there can be multiple use cases that you can achieve with the help of sentinels. So we have already seen that you can verify if a two-instance object has tags or not. In a similar way, you can also verify if a S3 bucket has encryption enabled or not. So in exams, there can be different use cases, but you should be able to identify that this use case can be achieved with the help of sentinel. As far as the checking of the Terraform configuration is concerned, the next important point is associated with the sensitive data in the state file. So if you’re managing sensitive data in TerraForm, for example, a DB password, a user password, et cetera, you should treat the state file itself as sensitive data. So, how do you go about doing that? There are multiple approaches if you’re using TerraForm Cloud.

So remember that the TerraForm cloud always encrypts the state file at risk and protects it with TLS InTransit. So Terraform Cloud also knows the identity of the user requesting the state and maintains the history of state changes. If you are making use of a back end like S3, then know that S3 supports encryption at risk. When the encryption option is enabled within the configuration, the next important point is associated with dealing with the credentials in the configuration. So remember that hard-coding credentials into the configuration file is not recommended and will risk secret leakage should the file ever be committed to a public version control system; you can always store the credentials outside of the telephone configuration. So we have seen that there are multiple ways in which you can do that.

Now, also remember that storing the credentials as part of the environment variables is also a better approach than hard-coding them as part of the configuration files. Because if you store it in the environment variables, it will not be committed as part of the configuration of TerraForm. The next important pointer of which you need to be aware is associated with the remote back end. As a result, the remote backend stores TerraForm state and may be used to perform operations in the TerraForm cloud. Now, when using full remote operations, remember that operations like TerraForm Plan or TerraForm Apply can be executed in a TerraForm Clouds Run environment with the log output streaming to your local terminal. The last important pointer for today’s video A few miscellaneous pointers here. Remember that in order to run Terraform, you do not require Go as a prerequisite. Second, TerraForm works well with Windows, Linux, and Mac, and Windows Server isn’t strictly necessary. If you want to run Terraform, fine.

5. Important Pointers for Exams – Part 04

Hey everyone, and welcome to the fourth part of the important points for the TerraForm certification. So let’s get started. The first important pointer you should be aware of is associated with the TerraForm graph. So the Terraform graph command is used to generate a visual representation of either a configuration or an execution plan. So within the TerraForm graph, the second point is very important for the exams that take it: that the output of the TerraForm graph is in dot format. So this dot format is very important to know and can be easily converted to an image as well. So we have done a great deal of practical work on this. So I hope you are aware of this.

The next important pointer is associated with the Splat expression. So the Splat expression allows us to get the list of all the attributes. So if you look at this specific screenshot, you have an IAM user; there are three IAM users that are getting created; and if you want to output a specific attribute associated with all of the IAM users, then you can make use of a Splat expression, something similar to this. Now, for the exams, you need to have a high-level overview of the example that is shown within the documentation, where you have a simple, easy-to-resource block and you have multiple EBS block devices. So within here, as you can see above, they’ve used a Splat expression for the device underscore name.

So what this will do is output the device name associated with both of the EBS block devices that are attached to the two EC instances. And then you also have a split expression associated with the attribute ID. So make sure that you are aware of this flat expression here. So, if you see a resource block, something similar to this, or even a different resource block entirely in exams, if your concept of Slat expression is clear, you will be able to easily answer this in the next important point we’ll be discussing about the basic TerraForm terminologies. So if you look into this specific resource block here, the AWS underscore instance is referred to as the resource type. The example here is referred to as a local name for this specific resource. The AAMI that you see over here is referred to as the argument name, and the ABC one, two, and three are also referred to as the argument value.

So, whenever you see a block, something similar to this or a different block entirely, and they ask you, “What is the local name for the specific resource type?” So, if they ask what is the argument value, you can easily identify that the local name here is example. The argument value is ABC one to three. So, at a high level, would you just remember this? The next important point is associated with the provider configuration. Do note that the provider configuration block is not mandatory for all of the TerraForm configurations. So till now we have beenextensively using a provider configuration block. Something similar to what you see here, where you specify region access and a secret key as an AWS provider. However, depending on the Terraform configuration, it might not be necessary to have this block altogether. So, on the right, if you look at this simple configuration where you have a local and these locals have a value of one and a value of two, and you directly refer to local arr within the output, So in this kind of Terraform configuration, there is no need to have a provider configuration block altogether. So in fact, let me quickly show you this.

So you have a local share, and within the locals here, value one, value two, and within the output, you are just referring to local AR. So this should print both the value one and the value two. So when you do a Terraform application, you see that you directly get the output. There is no real need for a provider configuration block here. The next important pointer is associated with the Terraform output. So the TerraForm output command is used to extract the value of an output variable from the state file. So it’ll take a look over here. So you have a Terraform output, and you specify the value associated with the output.

In this case, it is an IA underscore name, and you get all the values associated with it. The next important point is associated with the Terraform unlock. So do note that if supported by the backend, TerraForm will lock your state for all the operations that could write to a specific state. Now from here, we can identify that not all of the backend supports the locking functionality. This is an important part to remember. Now for the back ends that support lock functionality, you also have the option to perform a force unlock to manually unlock the state file if the unlocking has failed so many times. If you are working extensively in Terraform, you will see that sometimes there is an issue related to locks.

So you can go ahead and do a Terraform force unlock followed by the log ID, which allows you to remove the specific lock. So apart from these, there are a few more miscellaneous important pointers of which we need to be aware. To begin, be aware of the three primary advantages of using infrastructure as a code tool. The first one is automation.

The second concept is versioning. The third factor is reusability. Next, you should also be aware of the various infrastructure and code tools that are available on the market. TerraForm is again a great IAC tool. Apart from that, you have CloudFormation and Azure Resource Manager. You have the Google Cloud Deployment Manager as well. Now, as part of miscellaneous pointer number two, remember that Sentinel is a proactive service. Apart from that, also note that Terraform refresh does not modify the infrastructure, but it does modify the state file. The third important point is that the slice function is not part of the string function. Others, such as joint split chomp, are included. This is an important part to remember. So let me quickly show you what that refers to.

So within the function, you will see there are high-level categories into which the functions are divided into.So when you discuss the string function, there are multiple functions. Under this, like chop, you have format, you have intent, you join, and so on. So if you look at the pointer here, the slice function is not part of the string function. So there is no slice under the string function. So apart from that, one more important point is that it is not mandatory to include the module version argument while pulling the port from the TerraForm registry. So as part of the last slide associated with the miscellaneous pointer number three, do note that overusing dynamic blocks can make the configuration hard to read and maintain. So it is recommended not to use the dynamic blocks very extensively within the configuration. And the last point here is that the TerraForm can perform various operations like changing, destroying, and provisioning the resources, but it cannot import any resource.

6. Important Pointers for Exams – Part 05

And welcome to part five of the important pointers for the TerraForm certification exam. So, let’s get started. Now, the first important point that we need to know here is related to the topics of TerraForm Enterprise and TerraForm Cloud. So do note that on top of Terraform Cloud, TerraForm Enterprise provides several added advantages. So some of the added advantage of Terraform Enterprise is related to single sign-on. You have the auditing functionality, the private data center networking, and the clustering-related feature. Now, along with that, do note that you also have the functionality of the Team and Governance feature, which is not available as part of the TerraForm Cloud free version. Now, let me quickly show you. So if you look into the pricing aspect over here, this is a comparison. So, when it comes to the free tier, it ranges from $0 to $5 per user.

So this is free. So if you look into the free tier, there are only certain basic functionalities that have been offered; certain important things, like the team and governance that you see over here, do not come under the free tier. And that is what the third point refers to. Now, when you look at the business one, this one provides a lot of additional functionality.

You see, you have single sign-on for audit, private data center networking, and so on, which is not even available under the Team and Governance side. Great. So that’s the first important pointer. The second important pointer is associated with the variables with undefined values. So if you have defined a variable without any values, do note it on the TerraForm plan, or maybe TerraForm apply, because it will not directly result in an error. So, for example, within the TerraForm configuration, you have created a variable called “custom underscore bar,” but there is no value that you have associated anywhere within the configuration itself.

So when you do a Terraform plan, it will ask you for a value over here. So in an exam, if you see a question that states that a variable is defined but without any value, it results in an error. So now you know that it will not result in an error. The next important point is associated with the environment’s variables. Do note that environment variables can also be used to set the overall TerraForm variables. As a result, the environment variable must have the format TF underscore War underscore name. So these are the three examples that will allow us to understand it more. So you have TF underscore war underscore name exported. In this case, the key corresponds to the variables region, and the value is USCS 1. Again in the second example, you have the key AMI and the value, which is the AMI ID. The third important point is associated with the structural data types. So a structural data type allows us to have multiple values, each of different distinct types, grouped together in a single value.

So, for example, when you discuss a list, a list can contain multiple values of the same type, while an object can contain multiple values of a different type. So if you look into the structure type of an object, the object is basically a collection of name attributes that each have their own type. So if you look at the syntax, you have object, attribute name, and attribute type. So “object” is one example. The attribute name here is name, and the type here is String. Similarly, the attribute name here is H. The type here is “number.” So this will match the code below where you have Name is equal to John, which is part of String and, and age is equal to 52, which is a number. So that is where objects really prove to be important. In a similar way, if you look into the next one, which is Tuple, you can specify a tuple and the different types that you intend to have.

So these are the two different types. Now, within the exam question, if you see a question where you need to have multiple different types grouped together, list will not work; you need to make use of maybe objects. The next important point is associated with the back end configuration. So back ends are configured directly in the TerraForm file within the TerraForm section. So, for example, you have the back end of s3, and you have various parameters associated with the s3 back end. Now do note that after configuring a backend, it needs to be initialised as well. Now, when you discuss backend configuration, there are two important aspects that we need to know. One is the first-time configuration, and the second is the partial configuration.

So the first-time configuration states that when configuring a back end for the first time, which is moving from no defined back end to explicitly configuring one, TerraForm will give you an option to migrate your state to a new back end. This is very important. Assume you are currently in back end A and want to switch to back end B in a few days; if you have added the appropriate back end B configuration, TerraForm will give you the option to migrate your current state to a new back end. So this is one important part to remember. The second is associated with the partial time configuration. So within this section, you do not need to specify every required argument within the backend configuration. So if you look into this specific screenshot, there are multiple arguments that are being specified.

However, in partial configuration, it can be skipped. So you can just define the back end of S 3, and all of these arguments, like bucket key regions, can be skipped. So that’s why it’s called a “partial configuration.” So if you omit it, So if you look into this diagram, you have just defined a console and have not specified any arguments over here, so omitting certain arguments may be desirable, like, for example, avoiding the storage of secrets or access keys within the configuration. With the partial configuration, the remaining configuration argument must be provided as part of the initialization process.

So one example can be explained here. So if you do a tar for a minute, then you are giving back-end configuration, you are giving the address of the console, you again have a different configuration where you have defined various other things, and you also have one more back-end configuration where the scheme is https. So, if you don’t define it as part of the overall Terraform settings, you can define it explicitly at the other stage. The following crucial point is related to the TerraForm taint command, which will manually mark a TerraForm-managed resource as tainted, forcing it to be destroyed and recreated on the next application. So this is very important, so once the Terraform is marked as tainted, that resource will be destroyed and recreated.

So once the resource is marked as tainted, the next plan will show that the resource will be destroyed and recreated, and the next application will implement the change. So in an exam, there can be a question that says that if you do a Terraform taint on a resource, will it immediately destroy and recreate it, or where exactly will that stage occur? So that is what the second point states: only after you apply the next change will this change be implemented. The next important point is associated with the provider.

So, as we’ve discussed, there are two important provisions: local and remote. So the local provisioner invokes a local executable after a resource is created, and this invokes a process on the machine running Terraform and not the resource. This is very important, so the local executable will run on the machine that is running TerraForm. So, at the most basic level, you understand the syntax, which is the provider of local executive. You specify a command, and this is the exact command. The next provider is the remote one. So the remote executable provisioner invokes a script on a remote resource after it has been created. So, when discussing a remote exec provisioner, there are two important connection types that are supported: SSH and WinRM.

Now again, for the remote provisioner, just understand the basics of the syntax where you have a provisioner for remote execution, you have an inline, and within this inline you specify the list of commands that you need to run. Now, along with that, at a provisional level, you need to understand the overall failure behavior. As a result, if a provisioner fails, Terraform will also fail. This is an important part to remember, however, because these specific settings can be changed. So the on underscore failure setting can be used to change this specific behavior. So there are two allowed values here. One is “continue” and the second is “failed.” So Continue states that you should ignore the error and continue with the creation or destruction process. Fail basically means to raise an error and stop applying. Again, the problem is the default behaviour over here. So, in the screenshot above, you have a local executable and you specify on underscore that failure is equal to continue.

So this will go ahead and ignore the error in case there are any failed commands. The next important point is associated with the provisional types. So there are two important types of provisionals that are available. One is the creation time, and the second is the destroyed time. Now, within the creation time provisioners, they are only present during the creation stage, and they do not apply during any other life cycle phases of updating. So do note that if a creation time provider fails, the resource is marked as tainted. You now have a destroyed time provider as well. So the provisioners are run before the resource is destroyed. The next important point is associated with the input variables. So the value associated with the variable can be assigned with multiple approaches. So for example, let’s assume that you have a variable for image ID. You have defined a type of stream, but you have not really defined a value associated with the variable.

Now, we have already seen that in this case, if you do a TerraForm plan, the CLI will ask you to put a value associated with this variable. However, there are also multiple ways in which the value can be assigned. As we are discussing, CLI is one way; you can also assign it at the TFWA level. So if you are not making use of the TerraForm tfwars naming convention for a TF bars file, you can go ahead and manually specify the different files. So let’s assume that you are using a custom TFirst file. In such cases, a Terraform application can be used. Then you specify the name of your custom TFRs file. In this case, it is testing TFWs. Do note that if your name is just TerraForm TFS, then you do not really need to run the VARiPhone; when you issue the command, it automatically takes it up. The next important point is associated with the variable definition precedence. Take note that the Terraform loads the variable in the order listed below, with the later source taking precedence over the earlier.

So the first one is the environment variable. The second one is TerraForm TF; if it is present, then you have TerraForm TFW JSON; if it is present, you also have various other things like auto tfwars or auto tfwars JSON, or you can even specify it with the hyphen value or hyphen VAR file option on the command line. Now, do note that if the same variable is defined with multiple values, Terraform uses the last value that it finds. The next important point is associated with the TerraForm local backend. Now, the local backend stores the state on the local file system, locks that state using the System API, and also performs the operation locally. So, by default, if you are not doing anything, TerraForm makes use of the local back end, which is the normal behaviour of TerraForm that we are used to unless and until you specify a remote back end. So here you can also specify it within the TerraForm settings, where you have the back end of “Local” and you can specify the path where your state file can stay.

The next important point is associated with the required provider. As a result, each TerraForm module must declare which provider it requires so that the TerraForm can install and use them. Now, provider requirements are declared with the help of the required underscore “providers” block. So, under the Terraform settings block, you have the required underscore Providers block, where you specify the provider as well as the version associated with that provider. Now, the next important point is associated with the required version under the TerraForm setting. So, in the same way that we defined required providers, you can also define a required version. So the required version setting accepts a version constraint that specifies which version of Terraform can be used within your configuration. The version of the required provider is not associated with the version of the required provider, but the version of Terraform itself is.

So, if the running version of Terraform does not match the constraints that are specified, Terraform will produce an error. So, for example, within here you have the required version, which is greater than 0.10. So, if someone is using zero point eleven and follows the TerraForm plan, he will directly result in an error. Now, the next important point is associated with the overall versioning arguments. Do note that there are multiple versioning arguments that can be used. So the first one is greater than or equal to So if it is greater than or equal to version 1.0, so this can be used, then you have less than or equal to Then, if you have something tilted like this, it basically means any version in the 2X range. Now, you can also specify greater than or less than equal to.

7. Important Pointers for Exams – Part 06

Hey everyone, and welcome to the sixth part of the important points for TerraForm certification. So let’s get started. Now, the first important pointer that you need to know is how you can go ahead and fetch a value from a map. So for example, if you look into the map, the name is AMI underscore IDs, and there are multiple key-value pairs that are available. Now, let’s assume that for your easy instance, you want to refer to this specific image, which is image hyphen ABC. So you want to launch an image that has this specific ID. So how can you reference it from this given map?

So if the overall syntax varies, then you have to specify Mumbai. So when you do that, the value associated with this one would be image hyphen ABC. Similarly, if you want to refer to images with the hyphen des, then you have to change it from Mumbai to Germany, and so on. So this is the basic information that you need to remember. The second important pointer that we need to know is associated with Terraform and git. So if you’re making use of a git repository for committing the TerraForm code, do note that the digit ignore file should be configured to ignore certain TerraForm files that might contain sensitive data. So again, this depends on an organization-by-organisation basis. So some of the files that can be included as part of the git ignore may be TerraForm TF state files. So this can include certain sensitive information. So you’ll have to verify that. Also, the start flash file may also contain data like a password, so this can also be ignored.

So these are some of the important files. So primarily, this is one of the reasons why it is also stated that it is recommended to use the TerraForm Postdate file and move it as part of the remote backend instead of committing it as part of the git. Now, along with that, do note that arbitrary git repositories can be used by prefixing the address with a special git prefix. So if you look into the module over here, you have a module of VPC, and within this source, you have specified the git repository over here.

So this is the syntax: you have a git repository, and then you specify the exact URL for your git repository. So after this prefix of “git,” you can specify any valid git URL along with the associated protocol. So here you will see that the protocol is https, then you have the protocol of SSH, and so on. The next important pointer that we need to know is that, by default, TerraForm will clone and use the default branch, which is referenced by the head in a given git repository. However, if you want to reference a different branch altogether, you can override this with the help of the ref argument.

So if you will see over here, apart from the overall URL, you have the reference, and then you specify the appropriate name. So the value associated with the reference can be any reference that would be accepted by the git checkout command. So it can include the branches as well as the tag names. The next important point is associated with the TerraForm workspace. So do note that workspaces are managed with the TerraForm workspace set of commands. Now, within the TerraForm workspace, the overallstate file directory is TerraForm tfstate d. So inside this specific directory is the TF state file store. Now, also note that it is not suitable. So the Terraform workspace is not suitable for isolation or for strong separation between multiple workspace environments, for example, Stage and Production. So in the exam questions, it states that there is a need for strong separation between the staging and production environments.

TerraForm Workspace is not the ideal option here. So there are a few important commands that you should also know for the Terraform workspace. So in case you want to create a new workspace, the command is TerraForm WorkspaceNew followed by the workspace name. In this case, it is KP Labs. Now, if you want to switch to a specific workspace, then the command is Terraform Workspace. The workspace name is then selected. This is very important here. Now, also one more important part. So, if you want to create a new workspace, you can see a command for “Terraform Workspace” in this screenshot. As a result, a new workspace called “bar” is created. Now it states that I created and switched to the workspace bar. So as soon as you create a new workspace, you automatically switch to that specific workspace. You do not have to manually switch it. This is also an important part to remember. Now, the next important point is associated with the dependency types.

The first is the implicit dependency. As a result of implicit dependency, Terraform can automatically find the object’s reference and create an implicit ordering requirement between two resources. So, for example, here are two resources that are available. One is elastic IP, and the second is the EC for an instance. Now, which resource should Terraform create? The first can be determined using implicit dependency. So, within the AWS instance resource, within the public IP, the AWS underscoreEIT, which is associated with the first resource, is explicitly specified. And you have the attribute “private underscore IP.” So from here, TerraForm can identify that there is an implicit dependency, and TerraForm will create the EIP resource first, after which the ECTO instance resource will be created. The second type of dependency is explicit.

So in this case, you have to explicitly specify the dependency when the resource relies on some other resource’s behavior but does not access any of the resource’s data in its argument. So in the first state, you have specified the resource address over here. As a result, Terraform can understand this implicitly. However, it might not always be the case, so here you have an SV bucket and you have the EC to instance. So what you might want is for the SV bucket to be created first, after which the EC instance must be created. In this case, you can add explicit dependency using the depends on attribute, and you can specify which resource must be created first. The next important pointer is associated with the state command. Do note that, rather than modifying the statefile directly, the TerraForm state command can also be used in a lot of cases.

So, at a high level, you should be familiar with the basic Terraform state commands. So you have a TerraForm state list, a TerraForm state move, a TerraForm state pull, a TerraForm state remove, and a TerraForm state show. So you should know what each one of these does. We have basically discussed it in our video. So in case you are unaware of this part, you can quickly revise. The next important point is associated with a data source. So the data source allows data to be fetched or computed for use elsewhere within the Terraform configuration. So, on the left, you have a data source where you compute the most recent AMI ID, and based on that, you can specify, so you have data within the AMI. As a result, it is referencing data from the AWS underscore AMI app and the AMI ID here.

So this is the basic concept of a data source. Now a few more important pointers related to taint. So do note that Terraform taint can also be used to taint a resource within a module. The overall syntax is TerraForm Paint followed by options and then address. Now that this can be better experimented with in a specific screenshot where you have TerraForm paint, you are specifying the exact address. This example includes the module. So there are modules such as couch, baseAWS, coinstance, and so on. Now, also note that for multiple submodules, the following syntax example can be used. So, for example, your module foo module bar AWS underscore instance So if there are multiple submodules, then this is the syntax that can be used. Now, the next important point is associated with a Terraform plan to destroy.

So a Terraform destroy command is similar to a Terraform apply command in that you must enter a yes or no answer. You can, however, do a Terraform plan destroy if you just want to look at the exact changes without putting a yes or no. So the behavior of any Terraform Destroy command can be predicted. So if you want to do a preview of this, then you can do a TerraForm plan hyphen destroy command. So the output is something that we see within the screenshot. The next important point is associated with the TerraForm module sources. So the TerraForm module supports multiple installation sources. So here you have source, so this can be local path, this can be git, these can be http URLs, and so on. Now, one important part to remember is that in this specific screenshot, this is a local path. So a local path must be given with either or to indicate that a local path is intended for this specific source. The next important pointer is associated with dealing with larger infrastructure.

Now, various cloud providers, such as AWS, have set amounts of rate limiting. So whenever Terraform tries to request a lot of resources together, it might not work. As a result of rate limiting, Terraform can only request a certain amount of resource over a given time period. And this is one of the reasons why it is recommended that you not put everything in the same configuration. So a lot of organizations have a very large single configuration, and that leads to a lot of issues specifically related to rate limiting over the long term. So it is important to break large configurations into multiple smaller configurations that can be independently applied. This is very important. Assume you have one larger configuration and divide it into multiple smaller configurations. Consider configurations A and B, which can be used independently. Now, as an alternate term, let’s assume that you already have a very large configuration already.

What are the options over here? So in such cases, you can make use of refreshes equal to false and the target flag as a workaround. So you can specify “refresh false.” So it does not really do a lot of refreshing; that can save you in a rate-limiting related aspect, and you can also specify a specific target over there. Now, again, one important thing to remember is that this is not a recommended configuration. But if you have reached this stage and you want to make Terraform work, then these can be options there. So a few more important miscellaneous pointers indicate that the lookup function retrieves the value of a single element from a map.

So lookup works with a map. So if you look at the sample code, you have a lookup, you have a map, then you specify the key, and you have a default over here. Now, also note that various commands run TerraForm refresh implicitly. For example, if you run a TerraForm plan, it will also run TerraForm refresh. So all of these are implicit orders. Terraform plan, TerraForm applied, and TerraForm destroys the TerraForm refresh implicitly. Now, other TerraForm commands, like TerraForm in a TerraForm import, do not run TerraForm refresh implicitly. Now, also note that there are various data types that are supported. For example, you have a list, you have a map, and so on. However, array is not a supported data type in Terraform. The next important miscellaneous pointer states that various variable definition files can be loaded automatically within TerraForm.

So let’s assume that you have a TerraForm.tfwarse file within your configuration. So you do not really need to do anything; it automatically gets loaded up. Similarly, TerraForm Tfwars, JSON, or any file with a name ending in “auto tfwars JSON” All of these can be loaded automatically. However, if you have a file with a different name, let’s assume “testing TF bars,” then you have to explicitly specify the hyphen file option to load them. Also note that both implicit and explicit dependency information is stored within the TerraForm TF state file. Also note that Terraforms upgrade command will update all the previously installed plugins to the newest version. So here goes the last important pointer for today’s video. The first is that the Terraform Console command provides an interactive console for evaluating the expression. We have already seen how we can go ahead and try things out with the TerraForm Console. Now, at a high level, you should also know the difference between 00:11 and 00:12 in terms of defining a variable. So in 0:11, this was the way in which the variables could be defined. However, it is much easier in zero point twelve, where you can directly put the VAR instance underscore type and the associated. 

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